UPSC IAS Mains Guidance Program 2017

MGP/MGP+ Alternate Schedule ( Shcedule B ) – Click here to download Brochure. First Test Starts 4th March

UPDATE on April 18 : Admissions to MGP 2017 – Batch C is now OPEN.

Click here to download Brochure & Test Plan

Payment Link for MGP+ 2017 – Schedule C – CLICK ME

Payment Link for MGP 2017 – Schedule C – CLICK ME


 

Important: Admissions for New Batches of MGP+ and MGP 2017 are now OPEN. The Program will commence after the Prelims Exam from July 1, with Orientation Scheduled on June 24.

 


CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD THE PLAN DETAILS IN PDF – MGP Schedule A – 10th December


Click here to enroll in MGP+ ( 25 GS Tests + Essay ) | Click here to enroll in MGP ( 25 GS Tests )

About the Program

ForumIAS will be conducting a Mains Guidance Program for 2017. The Primary Focus of the Program will be

  • Covering the entire syllabus via a Test Series in a disciplined manner before Mains 2017
  • Providing vital inputs and feedback to improve answer quality and possible scores through experienced Mentors
  • Aiding Students in Preparation across all stages of preparation through Email, Telephonic and one to one support
  • Designing the Test Schedule in a manner such that it will be possible to prepare for both Prelims & Mains together
Mains Guidance Program – Program Design

We have broken the syllabus in small doable parts that can be covered in a week. After a week, candidates can appear for a Test on the topics. This will

  • help in checking their preparation on the topics mentioned on a timely basis
  • get feedback and marks on the paper they have written via email and telephone
  • cover the syllabus in a disciplined manner, which is otherwise difficult
  • become aware of issues and questions on the topics being prepared. This is especially useful for those who have just begun. Timely tests help you understand what to focus on while studying.

 

Goals of Mains Guidance Program 2016

 

We have designed the MGP 2017 with inputs and feedback from MGP 2016 Students. The key things we will try to accomplish is

  • ensure that students cover/touch upon the full Mains syllabus at least once before the Prelims
  • GS Paper 1 is covered in a holistic manner before Prelims through 8 Test on GS Paper 1. This ensures that candidates do not waste 2 months on GS Paper 1 next year between Prelims & Mains
  • the Tests calendar is designed such that syllabus common to Prelims and Mains is tested in Feb – March by when everyone should start preparing for Prelims
  • Major Part of the “Mains-only” syllabus will be covered by January-February mid itself.
  • Students have access to Mentors who will aid and guide them all throughout the preparation phase.
Features of the Program
  • There are two versions of the Program : MGP & MGP+ ( MGP Plus )
  • MGP has a total of (a) 25 Tests – having 17 sectional Tests that will be released before the Prelims Examination (b) 8 Full Length Tests released after the Prelims Examination. The last 4 Simulator Tests will be conducted as per UPSC Timings on two consecutive days.
  • MGP+ ( MGP Plus ) has a total of (a) 30 Tests – having 17 sectional Tests that will be released before the Prelims Examination (b) 8 Full Length Tests and (c) 5 Essay Tests released after the Prelims Examination. The last 5 Simulator Tests ( GS – 4 Papers + 1 Essay ) will be conducted as per UPSC Timings on three consecutive days.
  • Supplementary Notes on Topics of Relevance to the Mains Examination will be provided.
  • Quality Improvement Sessions & Feedback sessions with ForumIAS Mentors will be conducted in classroom and telephonically
What is different?

The Test design is based on the feedback from our MGP Students of 2016 – some of whom are serving officers in Indian Revenue Services and Allied Services and joined us for rank improvement.

There were some of the common things that they told us

  • The preparation for Mains must begin before Prelims and at least one iteration should be completed.
  • Papers like Ethics and GS – 1 , which become a big burden to cover between Prelims & Mains must be covered as much as possible in December – January
  • candidates must spend December and January-February for covering Mains syllabus and the Time after March must be dedicated for Prelims solely.
  • Essay must be included in any Mains Test Series unlike MGP 2016 where Essay was not included, and some of them ended up not practising a single essay 🙁

Based in their feedback and participation , we went for this program design where we have classified the Topics in a manner such that

  1. Interrelated topics of same paper or even different paper to be covered together to provide a holistic idea for a given topic.
  2. The topics relevant for “mains-only” are covered earliest So that they do not become a pain point in the later date of your preparation.
  3. The Tests are designed so that the Prelims and Mains preparation is synced as Prelims approaches closer
  4. The quantity for topics are such that it can be easily covered on weekly basis. Your static portion will be complete in 3 months at a fast pace with 4-5 hours of study on a daily basis.
  5. The First Tests are half Tests of 125 questions and 90 minutes duration , which will easy to attempt and complete and will help complete the syllabus and get assessment from mentors.

The current affairs portion of MGP will be supplemented by Mains Marathon program 2017. Candidates are expected to attempt questions of the Mains Marathon in a notebook that will create a repository of Important Issues all throughout.

Test Plan

The Test Plan is designed to achieve 3 times revision of the full syllabus for candidates appearing for Mains 2016.

IterationsLevels and no. of testsWhat you can achieve
1st Iteration17 tests – Sectional

Of 90 Minutes duration and 125 Marks

Kick start your preparation from sleep mode to active mode by covering different topics of GS paper before every test. Do the best you can, and attempt the paper, even if you have not covered 100% of the syllabus. Learn how to write answers to questions that you do not know.
2nd Iteration 8 tests – 4 Full Syllabus Tests on all GS Papers + 4 Essay Tests

3 Hours Tests of 250 Marks

Take your preparation to next round of skills, knowledge and complete first revision by revising each full paper every two weeks. Also, prepare for essay by writing 3 essay papers.
3rd Iteration 5 tests – 3 Days Continuous about 15 days before as per UPSC Timings.

GS 1,2,3,4 + Essay

Like the ForumIAS Open Test

In the final round, you will be testing your preparation on UPSC level of stress and pressure by taking 4 GS and 1 Essay papers in 3 days. In a classroom as well as online.

 

This last test should set you in the mood to write the examination.

>Performance review and feedback

Each answer booklet will be reviewed and evaluated by ForumIAS Mentors, who have relevant experience with the Civil Services Mains Examination. Relevant feedback on making improvements will be provided.

ForumIAS will be assisted in this initiative by several members who have scored well in the successive examination . Several members who have secured good ranks and marks after making changes to their strategy will also provide inputs for the same.

Post Test Discussion – Classroom

Tests will be released on the Test Portal and in the Classroom on Saturdays, as per calendar. It is expected, but not mandatory that students write the Tests between 11AM – 1 PM on Saturday. Post Test discussions can be held in the second half of the day.

How it Works – Online

Candidates can enrol for the Mains Guidance Program (MGP ) through the Payment Links at the bottom of this document. After enrolment, they need to create an account on forumias.academy.

Tests will be released on the Test Portal on Saturdays, as per calendar.

The students will

  • Download the QCA Booklet and print it and attempt the Test on it.
  • The Attempted Paper should be scanned by a scanner or Mobile Phone using the Camscanner app and sent to ravi@forumias.com
  • It is recommended, but not binding that students write the Tests between 11AM – 1 PM on Saturday.

Discussion videos of the Test will be uploaded on the Test Portal within 2 weeks of conducting the Test.

Flexiblity:

Students can write the Tests anytime after the Release Date. This means that the Tests that they miss can be completed anytime till 2 weeks before the UPSC Mains Examination.

There is no boundation of completing a certain number of Tests before Prelims

However, in calendar month, candidates will be entitled to assessment and evaluation of upto 5 Test Papers. Beyond 5 Test Papers, it will be on the availability of Mentors.

This is because of in the last week, candidates write 2 Tests everyday – and send 12-15 copies in a time span of 1 week, just 2 weeks before the exam.

With just 2 weeks for the exam, it is impossible for us to give us an honest feedback and point out any lacuna simply because

(a) a poor feedback right before the examination serves no purpose.

(b) There is no time for the candidate to implement the feedback. Changes to writing style are not overnight and require 2-3 Tests at least to implement.

This defeats the purpose of the Test Series itself.

Secondly, sending 8-10 copies in a week ends up compromising on the time we can give to candidates who write Tests on a timely basis.

ForumIAS prioritizes candidates who appear for the Tests on time.

 

Mains Guidance Program – Working Candidates

We have scheduled the Tests on Saturdays so that working candidates can attempt the Tests on Saturday or Sunday. Discussion Video will be made available within 2 weeks of the Test. You will have access to Mentors via email and can request for a call back.

 

Fee Structure For New Students ( Both Online & Offline )

MGP+ ( 25 GS Tests + 5 Essay Tests ) Rs. 18000+ Service Tax = Rs. 20,700 – Payment Link – Click here

MGP ( 25 GS Tests Only ) Rs. 15000+ Service Tax = Rs. 17250 – Payment Link – Payment Link – Click here

Discounts for Already existing Prelims 2017 Test Series Students ( Both Online & Offline )

Already existing students of the ForumIAS Prelims 2017 Test Series ( both Online & Offline ) can enrol for the MGP and will be entitled to a discount of Rs. 2000 for both MGP and MGP+ ( GS + Essay )

Please use the discount code EXISTINGSTUDENT when you use the payment links above.

In case you want to enrol for both Prelims & Mains Test Series, you can first enrol for the Prelims Test Series and then enrol for the Mains Test Series by using the discount code EXISTINGSTUDENT for the payment links above. Please do not hesitate to reach us at ravi@forumias.com if you have any queries.

Note that there is no difference in fees in joining MGP online or Offline

Enrollment and Test Process
  1. Please enrol via the payment links provided above.
  1. After making the payments, please create an account in our test portal http://forumias.academy and we will add the MGP 2017 Course to your account. In case you face any delay, please email us at ravi@forumias.com
  1. The tests will be uploaded in our test portal http://forumias.academyas per test calendar and you will be notified for the same through mail.
  1. If you want to write the test online, download the question cum answer booklet, write the test physically, scan your answer-sheet and send it to ravi@forumias.comfor evaluation.

NOTE: While mailing your scanned answers to ravi@forumias.com, the Subject line must contain Name – Roll no. – Test Code – Date of submission. The scanned file should also follow the same naming convention. Evaluated copies will be mailed back within 15 days of submission.

  1. If you want to write the test offline, come to our test-centre* on the day of the test. You will be given QCA booklet to write the test. After attempting the test, submit your answer sheet in the test-centre itself for evaluation.

NOTE: Your QCA/Answer sheet must contain your Name, Roll No., Test Code and Date of submission. You will receive your evaluated copy in pdf format. You can collect the original physical copy from the centre on the date of next test.

  1. If you cannot attempt the test on the day it is conducted, you can write the test any day after that at a time comfortable to you. This applies for both online as well as offline mode. However, it is recommended that you sit for the tests on time to avoid backlog and lagging behind. Especially for offline students, it is recommended that you write the Test on designated dates with other candidates to get the examination feeling.

NOTE: Evaluation will be on a first come first serve basis. Papers submitted on time will be given priority in evaluation over papers submitted late.

  1. In order to make sure that evaluation quality is up to mark and evaluated copies are sent to respective students within 15 days of submission, students will be allowed to submit at the most 6 tests in a month for evaluation.

NOTE: ForumIAS Mentors will prioritize Students and copies that are regular. In a month, there will be maximum 6 copies of a particular student that will be evaluated. Beyond it will be upon the availability of Mentors. This does not necessarily means that copies will not be corrected, but merely the fact they will not be prioritised.

  1. Our Mentors can be reached over email for guidance, queries and other test-related assistance. A call back can be requested over email to discuss your paper one to one.
  1. For any queries, please reach us at ravi@forumias.com to get a quick reply. Alternatively, you can call Shantanu at +91-8800631116
Test Syllabus Details and Sources

 

Sr No.Test Name & CodeDate Of ReleaseDuration & MarksDetailed Topic ListingSources
1MGP01

17H041

Dec 10,

2016

1.5 Hours,

125 Marks

1. Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships.

2. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators;

3. Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.

4. Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance.

5. Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world

· BBC Guide to Ethics

· Chronicle Lexicon

· Selective Study from G. Subbarao

· Internet

 

2MGP02

17H240

Dec 17,

2016

1.5 Hours,

125 Marks

1. Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance;

2. Ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.

3. Probity in Governance: Concept of public service; Philosophical basis of governance and probity; Information sharing and transparency in government, Right to Information, Codes of Ethics, Codes of Conduct, Citizen’s Charters, Work culture, Quality of service delivery, Utilization of public funds, challenges of corruption.

4. Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizen’s charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.

5. Role of civil services in a democracy

· 2nd ARC REPORT (Ethics in Governance, Refurbishing of Personnel Administration)

· IGNOU: MPA-011 (Ch: Ethical

· Concerns in Public Administration)

· 2nd ARC REPORT (Right to Information, Citizen CentricAdministration)

· Articles published on ForumIAS

3MGP03

17H043

Dec 24,

2016

1.5 Hours,

125 Marks

1. Case Studies on Ethics, Integrity & Aptitude – 6 Case Studies Covering Various ScenariosSolving Previous Years Papers
4MGP04

17H011

 

Dec 31,

2016

1.5 Hours,

125 Marks

1. History of the world will include events from 18th century

2. Renaissance & Industrial revolution

3. American Revolution & French revolution,

4. Unification of European Nations, Redrawal of National Boundaries,

5. Rise of Nationalism & First World War

· Arjun Dev – old NCERT

· Mastering Modern World History by Normal Lowe

5MGP05

17H012

 

 

Jan 7,

2017

1.5 Hours,

125 Marks

1. Second World War – Causes, & Aftermath, Colonialisation&Decoloniation

2. Political philosophies like communism (First & Second International), capitalism, socialism etc.- their forms and effect on the society

3. Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India, Role of women and women’s organization

4. Communalism, regionalism & secularism

5. Effects of globalization on Indian society

· Old World History NCERT by Arjun Dev

· Mastering Modern World History by Normal Lowe

· NCERT -12th– Indian Society

· NCERT -12th- Social Change and Development in India

· IGNOU –ESO -12 Society inIndia

· IGNOU –ESO -16: SocialProblems In India

· Social Problems in India -Ram Ahuja can also be referred

· Newspaper

6MGP06

17H013

 

Jan 14,

2017

1.5 Hours,

125 Marks

1. Post-Independence History including Reign of Nehru, Lal Bahadur Shahstri, Morarji Desai, Indira Gandhi, Emergency Years, up to Economic Reforms of 1991

2. Reorganization of States, Linguistics Issues, Official Languages Act, Integration of Tribal, Hindu Code Bill

3. Uniform Civil Code, Non-Alignment, Socialistic Pattern of State

4. Land reforms in India

· 12th NCERT – Politics in India after Independence

· India since independence by Bipin Chandra

· India After Gandhi by Ramchandra Guha

· Pradhanmantri TV Series by ABP News

· Relevant Articles Published on ForumIAS.com

7MGP07

17H120

Jan 21,

2017

1.5 Hours,

125 Marks

1. Social Empowerment; Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections

2. Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources,

3. Issues relating to poverty and hunger; Inclusive growth and issues arising from it

4. Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

5. Development processes and the development industry– the role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders.

· Newspaper / 9 PM Brief

· NCERT -12th – Indian Society

· NCERT -12th – Social Change and Development in India

· Social Problems in India – Ram Ahuja

8MGP08

17H031

 

Jan 28,

2017

1.5 Hours,

125 Marks

1. Linkages between development and spread of extremism.

2. Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security; Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges.

3. Basics of cyber security

4. Money-laundering and its prevention

5. Security challenges and their management in border areas; linkages of organized crime with

terrorism, Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate

· Newspaper / 9 PM Brief

· NCERT Class 12: Political Science: Contemporary World

· Politics (Chapter: Security in the Contemporary World)

· 2nd ARC REPORT (Public Order, Capacity Building for Conflict

· Resolution, Combating Terrorism)

· Relevant articles on ForumIAS

9MGP09

17H032

 

Feb 4,

2017

1.5 Hours,

125 Marks

1. Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country; Different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers Economics of animal-rearing;

2. Food processing and related industries in India- scope and significance, location, upstream and downstream requirements, supply chain management; Technology missions

3. Factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India)

4. Disaster and disaster management.

· India since independence by Bipin Chandra [Land Reform]

· 12th NCERT: Geography India People and Economy

· 11th NCERT: Economics: Indian Economic Development

· Economic Survey of India

· Indian Economy Since Independence – Uma Kapila

· IGNOU : MPA-018 DisasterManagement

· 2nd ARC REPORT (CrisisManagement)

10MGP10

17H033

Feb 11,

2017

1.5 Hours,

125 Marks

1. Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

2. Government Budgeting

3. Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices;

4. Public Distribution System– objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security

5. Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.

6. Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc; Investment models. | #InfrastructureInvestmentQuestions | Tag | Articles

· Newspaper / PIB / 9 PM Brief

· 11th NCERT: Economics: Indian Economic Development

· Economic Survey of India

· Indian Economy Since Independence – Uma Kapila – Selective

· 2nd ARC REPORT(Strengthening Financial Management Systems)

· Articles Published on ForumIAS.com

 

11MGP11

17H021

 

Feb 18,

2017

1.5 Hours,

125 Marks

1. India and its neighborhood- relations; Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests

2. Issues relating to intellectual property rights & Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests,

3. Indian Diaspora.

4.Important International institutions, agencies and fora- their structure, mandate

 

· Newspaper / 9 PM Brief / Daily editorials

· Rajiv Sikri

· NCERT Class 12: Political Science: Contemporary World

· Politics

· Ministry of External Affairs website

· Articles Published on ForumIAS

12MGP12

17H022

Feb 25,

2017

1.5 Hours,

125 Marks

1. Indian Constitution– historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.

2. Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other countries

3. Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.

4. Separation of powers between various organs;Dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions

5. Parliament and State Legislatures – structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these

· 11th NCERT: Indian Constitution at Work

· Indian Polity by M Laxmikant

· 12th NCERT – Politics in India after Independence

· 2 nd ARC REPORT

· Punchi Commission Report

· Newspaper / Mains Marathon Issues

13MGP13

17H023

Mar 4,

2017

1.5 Hours,

125 Marks

1. Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary, Ministries and Departments of the Government;

2. Pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.

3.Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act, Issues Related to elections & Electoral Reforms

4. Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various

Constitutional Bodies; Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies

· 11th NCERT: Indian Constitution at Work

· Indian Polity by M Laxmikant

· 12th NCERT – Politics in India after Independence

· 2nd ARC REPORT

· Punnchi Commission Report

14MGP14

17H013

Mar 11,

2017

1.5 Hours,

125 Marks

1. Salient features of world’s physical geography

2. Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc.,

3. Geographical features and their location- changes in critical geographical features (including water bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.

4. Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian subcontinent);

· 11th NCERT: Physical Geography

· Certificate Physical and Human Geography by Goh Cheng Leong

· Around the World (Geography): ICSE Board [Class 6, 7 and 8] or OLD NCERT Books [Class 6, 7, 8]

· Orient Longman Atlas

15MGP15

17H014

Mar 18,

2017

1.5 Hours,

125 Marks

1. Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues

2. Arrival of Europeans, End of Moghul Rule, The Dawn of British Raj, Revolt of 1857

3. The Freedom Struggle – its various stages and important contributors /contributions from different parts of the country.

 

· Bipin Chandra – Old NCERT

· “A Brief History of Modern India” – Spectrum Pub.

· Previous Years Papers

16MGP16

17H015

 

Mar 25,

2017

1.5 Hours,

125 Marks

1.Indian culture: The salient aspects of Art Forms, Paintings – Evolution from Cave Paintings to Medieval Times

2. Dance Forms, Puppetry

3. Music & Musical Instruments

4. Literature

5. Architecture from ancient to modern times – Structural Temples, Northern & Southern Style, Mughal Architecture, Post British Architecture

· Text Book on Fine Arts Class XI NCERT.

· CCRT Website or compilation

· Indian Culture and Heritage -NIOS: www.nios.ac.in

· Self Made Notes on the Topic

 

17MGP17

17H034

 

Apr 1,

2017

1.5 Hours,

125 Marks

1. Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, Environmental impact assessment

2. Science and Technology– developments and their applications and effects in everyday life, Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology, Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, Nano-technology, bio-technology

· Newspaper – The Hindu

· Shankar IAS Compilation

· Science Reporter

· The Hindu

18MGP18

17F021

 

July 8,

2017

11 AM

3 Hours,

250 Marks

 

General Studies Paper 2 – Full Syllabus Test
19MGPE1

17F0E1

 

July 22,

2017

11 AM

3 Hours,

250 Marks

Essay
20MGP19

17F031

 

July 29,

2017

11 AM

3 Hours,

250 Marks

General Studies Paper 3 – Full Syllabus Test
21MGPE2

17F0E2

 

Aug 12,

2017

11 AM

3 Hours,

250 Marks

Essay
22MGP20

17F041

Aug 19,

2017

11 AM

3 Hours,

250 Marks

General Studies Paper 4 – Full Syllabus Test
23MGPE3

17F0E3

 

Sep 9,

2017

11 AM

3 Hours,

250 Marks

Essay
24MGP21

17F011

Sep 16,

2017

11AM

3 Hours,

250 Marks

General Studies Paper 1 – Full Syllabus Test
25MGPE4

17F0E4

 

Oct 12,

2017

9:00 AM to 12:00 PM

3 Hours,

250 Marks

 

Essay
26MGP22

17F012

Oct 13,

2017

9:00 AM to 12:00 PM

3 Hours,

250 Marks

 

General Studies Paper 1
27MGP23

17F022

Oct 13,

2017

2:00 PM to 5:00 PM

3 Hours,

250 Marks

 

General Studies Paper 2
28MGP24

17F032

Oct 14,

2017

9:00 AM to 12:00 PM

3 Hours,

250 Marks

 

General Studies Paper 3
29MGP25

17F042

Oct 14,

2017

2:00 PM to 5:00 PM

3 Hours,

250 Marks

 

General Studies Paper 4
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