Q. Consider the following events regarding the integration of Princely States into the Indian Union:
1. Signing of Instrument of Accession by the Maharaja of Jodhpur.
2. Police action for the accession of Hyderabad.
3. Referendum in Junagarh. 4. Signing of Instrument of Accession by the Maharaja of Kashmir.
Choose the correct chronological order of the events given above.

[A] 1-3-2-4

[B] 1-4-2-3

[C] 3-1-2-4

[D] 1-4-3-2

Answer: D

Exp) Option d is the correct answer.

The integration of Princely States was one of the biggest challenges faced by the nationalist leaders. With the combined efforts of Sardar Patel and V.P. Menon, most of the States had given their consent for accession to India. However, states of Travencore, Bhopal, Jodhpur, Kashmir, Junagarh and Hyderabad had troublesome history regarding the integration into the Indian Union.

Accession of Jodhpur: At the time of independence, Jodhpur had a Hindu king as well as largely Hindu population. Jinnah offered very lucrative terms to Jodhpur and it was suspected the state to join Pakistan. From the Indian side, Patel intervened and additionally offered free import of arms and adequate grains. Maharaja Hanwant Singh, thereafter, signed Instrument of Accession on 11th August, 1947.

Accession of Kashmir In October, 1947, the Maharaja Hari Singh of Kashmir signed the Instrument of Accession. It was on the backdrop of invasion by Pashtun tribesmen from Pakistan’s North West Frontier Province (NWFP). After the signing of the Instrument, the Indian Army airlifted its troops to Kashmir and stopped the invaders within two weeks.

Accession of Junagarh Junagarh had announced that it would accede to Pakistan. Junagarh had a Muslim Nawab ruling over chiefly Hindu population (approximately 82%). However, geographically, its accession to Pakistan made little sense. To resolve the matter, it was decided to conduct a plebiscite. A referendum was held on 20th February 1948 resulted in 91% of the electorates voting for accession to India.

Accession of Hyderabad Hyderabad was also a state ruled by Muslim Nawab having majority Hindu population. The Nawab was not keen on the issue of accession to India. Operation Polo was conducted in September, 1948 and a contingent of Indian troops was sent to Hyderabad. On 17th September, 1948 the troops had full control over the State and Nizam announced on radio to ‘live in peace and harmony with rest of the people of India.’