Q. Consider the following with reference to the manifestation of phenomenon of regionalism in India:
1. Inter-state boundary disputes.
2. Forming an organization which advocates a militant approach for separation from India.
3. Demand for separate statehood by people of certain areas.
4. Demand of Union Territories for fullfledged statehood.
How many of the above-given manifestations of regionalism are correct?

[A] Only one

[B] Only two

[C] Only three

[D] All four

Answer: D

Exp) Option d is the correct answer.

Regionalism refers to sub-nationalism and sub-territorial loyalty. It implies the love for a particular region or state in preference to the country as a whole. Sub regionalism is a love for a particular region in preference to the state of which the region forms a part.

Option 1 is correct: The forces of regionalism in India are visible in the inter-state disputes. The people of Punjab and Haryana are involved a in dispute over the issue of transfer of Chandigarh to Punjab and the transfer of certain areas of Abohar and Fazilka to Haryana. The boundary disputes between Maharashtra and Karnataka on Belgaum, between Karnataka and Kerala on Kasargod, between Assam and Nagaland on Rangma reserved forests in Rangapani area, between Assam and Meghalaya on Langpih, Hakumari and Jingiran river areas of Garo hills, and between Assam and Arunachal Pradesh on Pasighat area are manifestations of regionalism.

Option 2 is correct: It is a form of regionalism that involves militant and fundamentalist groups advocating a separation from India on the basis of ethnicity or any other factor. For example, Isac Muivah’s National Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN-IM), the Islamic fundamentalist groups in J&K, United Liberation Front of Asom (ULFin Assam are examples of such an extreme dimension of regionalism.

Option 3 is correct: People of certain areas demand for separate statehood is a manifestation of regionalism. (Like Telangana, Bodoland, Uttarakhand, Vidarbha, Gorkhaland etc.). After 1956 reorganization of states of India, there continues to be demands for separate statehood in various parts of the country. The rise in the number of states of the Indian Union from 16 in 1956 to 28 in 2000 tends to prove the correctness of this statement.

Option 4 is correct: People of certain Union Territories demand for full-fledged statehood are a manifestation of regionalism (like Manipur, Tripura, Puducherry, Delhi, and Goa, Daman and Diu and so on). Most of such demands have already been accepted. In 1971, Himachal Pradesh got the status of a full state and thereafter Manipur, Tripura, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh (former NEFA), Sikkim got full statehoods.