Q. Which of the following initiatives are introduced by the government of India for promoting e-governance?
1. e-Courts
2. e-District
4. Jeevan Pramaan
Select the correct answer using the code given below:

[A] 1 and 2 only

[B] 2 and 4 only

[C] 1 and 3 only

[D] 1, 2, 3 and 4

Answer: D

Exp) Option d is the correct answer.

e-Governance can be defined as the application of information and communication technology (ICT) for providing government services, exchange of information, transactions, integration of previously existing services etc.

Option 1 is correct. e-Courts was launched by the Department of Justice, Ministry of Law and Justice. This Mission Mode Project (MMP) aims at utilizing technology for improved provisioning of judicial services to citizens.

Option 2 is correct. e-District was launched by the Department of Information Technology. It aims at delivery of high volume, citizen-centric services at the district level such as the issue of birth/death certificate, income and caste certificates, old age and widow pension, etc.

Option 3 is correct. PRAGATI (Pro-Active Governance And Timely Implementation) is an e-governance portal aimed at starting a culture of Pro-Active Governance and Timely Implementation. It is a multi-purpose and multimodal platform that is aimed at addressing common man’s grievances, and simultaneously monitoring and reviewing important programmes and projects of the Government of India as well as projects flagged by State Governments.

Option 4 is correct. Jeevan Pramaan is an Aadhaar based Biometric Authentication System for Pensioners. The system provides authenticity to Digital Life Certificate without the necessity of the pensioner being present in person before his/ her Pension Dispensing Authority (PDA).