This was the Modern History Test
Following is the Solution and Explanation:
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Statement 1 is correct: The doctrine of lapse was an annexation policy purportedly devised by Lord Dalhousie, who was the Governor General for the East India Company in India between 1848 and 1856.
Statement 2 is incorrect: According to the doctrine, any princely state or territory under the paramountcy (direct influence) of the British East India Company as a “vassal” under the British subsidiary system, would automatically be annexed if the ruler was either “manifestly incompetent or died without a male heir”. This Doctrine rejected the long-established right of an Indian ruler without an heir to choose a successor. The doctrine was regarded by Indians as illegitimate. It was an arbitrary policy which snatched away kingdoms when there was no direct heir.
Statement 3 is correct: Doctrine of Lapse contributed caused discontent that was one of the factors for the outbreak of the Indian Mutiny.
Kazi Nazrul Islam was a Bengali poet, writer, musician, and revolutionary. He used literature, poetry and speech as a tool for political awareness. Thus, the correct option is d.
Popularly known as Nazrul, he produced a large body of poetry and music with themes that included religious devotion and spiritual rebellion against fascism and oppression.
Nazrul’s writings explore themes such as love, freedom, humanity and revolution. He opposed all forms of bigotry and fundamentalism, including religious, caste-based and gender-based.
Nazrul reached the peak of fame in 1922 with Bidrohi (The Rebel), which remains his most famous work, winning the admiration of India’s literary classes for his description of a rebel as someone whose impact is fierce and ruthless even as his spirit is deep. Published in the popular Bijli magazine, the rebellious language and theme were well received, coinciding with the Non-Cooperation Movement – the first mass nationalist campaign of civil disobedience against British rule.
Statement 1 is incorrect: In September 1915, Annie launched the Home Rule League, modeling demands for India on Irish models.
Statement 2 is incorrect: The All India Home league ended in 1920, when it elected Mahatma Gandhi as its President, when within a year it merged into the Indian National Congress.
Statement 3 is correct: Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Annie Besant, Mohammad Ali Jinnah, Joseph Baptista, G. S. Khaparde, Sir S. Subramania Iyer, all came together under the umbrella of the All India Home Rule League. The demand was self-government within the British Empire for all of India.
Note: Despite the banner of All India Home Rule League, there were two leagues one by Tilak that worked in Bombay Presidency, Carnatic, Central provinces and Berar. The Annie Besant’s league worked for rest of India.
Statement 1 is incorrect: It opposed the idol-worship but accepted the doctrine of ‘Karma’.
Statement 2 is incorrect: Supported Four Varna System but the Varna system should be based on merit not birth.
Statement 3 is incorrect: Opposed the reincarnation theory of God.
Thus, all the given statements are incorrect.
• Dayanand Saraswati founded the Arya Samaj in Bombay in 1875.
• Arya Samaj rejected all the post-Vedic developments in Hinduism and thus denounced meaningless rites, worship of the images of different gods and goddesses
• Its slogan ‘Back to Vedas’ was inspired to revive the true Vedic religion and bring about national unity and to kindle national pride and consciousness.
Statement 1 is incorrect: Lord Lytton passed the Vernacular Press Act in 1878.
Statement 2 is incorrect: The act was later repealed by Lord Ripon, who followed Lord Lytton.
Statement 3 is incorrect: Prior permission of the Government was not required. By this act, the magistrates of the districts were empowered, without the prior permission of the Government, to call upon a printer and publisher of any kind to enter into a Bond, undertaking not to publish anything which might “rouse” feelings of disaffection against the government.
Thus, all the given statements are incorrect.
Statement b is incorrect as the Rowlatt act authorized the government to imprison for a maximum period of two years.
• The Anarchical and Revolutionary Crimes Act, 1919, popularly known as the Rowlatt Act, was a legislative act passed by the Imperial Legislative Council in Delhi on March 18, 1919, indefinitely extending the emergency measures of preventive indefinite detention, incarceration without trial and judicial review.
• It was enacted in light of a perceived threat from revolutionary nationalist organizations.
• The accused were denied the right to know the accusers and the evidence used in the trial.
• Those convicted were required to deposit securities upon release, and were prohibited from taking part in any political, educational, or religious activities.
Statement 1 is correct: The previous experiment of Izaredar system was based on annual assessment of revenue. To streamline the revenues of the company, Cornwallis changed the settlement schedule from annual to decennial.
Statement 2 is incorrect: Zamindars were hitherto only collectors of revenue and had no ownership rights over land. In the permanent settlement, the company recognized them as owners of soil. They were given permanent hereditary rights to collect revenue.
• The Zamindars needed to pay a fixed amount of land revenue on a fixed date every year.
• The amount could not be increased later, however, if the Zamindar failed to pay the amount on fixed date, the Company could sell their land via public auction. This made sure that Zamindars were strict enough to collect revenues from peasants and pay it to company at fixed time.
• Zamindars were allowed to keep force and maintain order in their districts. They were expected to improve the conditions of the tenants but the company would not interfere in their internal dealings with the tenants so long they paid the fixed land revenue.
The recommendations of the Simon Commission were published in May 1930.
Statement 1 is correct: Dyarchy in the provinces should be abolished and ministers should be made responsible to the provincial legislatures in all departments, including the department of law and order.
Statement 2 is incorrect: No change in the central executive.
Statement 3 is correct: Burma should be separated from the British India and should be provided a constitution of its own.
• The Governor was to retain the special powers for the safety and tranquility of the province and for the protection of the minorities.
• At the centre, a Federal assembly would be constituted on the basis of representation of the provinces and other areas as per the population.
• The all India federation was not considered practical idea.