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UPSC Prelims Booklist


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Internal Security for UPSC: National Security and Internal Security



National Security and its Elements


National Security is a state or condition where a nation’s most cherished values and beliefs, its way of life, its institutions of governance and its unity, welfare, and well-being as a Nation and people are permanently protected and continuously enhanced.

Its basic elements are as follows:

1.Socio-political stability– It has the following two components:

Maintenance of public order– Disturbed public order has a bearing on political stability and people blame the government for failing to maintain the public order and demand change in government.

Freedom from oppression and crime at the hands of certain people of the society.

2.Territorial Integrity – Nation should protect itself from all illegal intrusions and resource exploitation.

3.Economic Security – Nation to have a stable income or other sources to support a standard of living now and in the near future.

4.Environmental security – Effective conservation of natural environment in the face of industrial and agricultural expansion and population growth.

5.Energy security – To have access to cheap and renewable sources of energy.

6.Cultural cohesiveness

7.Moral and spiritual consensus – All People should have a national vision and a national pride.



Figure 1.1: Facets of National Security


Internal and External Security


The two aspects of National Security are Internal and External Security.  At the outset, it is important to understand the difference between them:

Internal Security


i).It is the security of the country from internal actors as well as foreign actors, within its boundaries


ii).Its maintenance is the sole responsibility of the State police, supported by Central police forces and armed forces.


iii).It falls under the purview of Ministry of Home Affairs


iv).Fighting from internal forces require an unconventional set of skills of warfare.

v).Police efforts for internal security maintenance may lead to issues of human rights violence as it often involves a war against our own people.

vi).Internal troubles are often a result of aggrieved Indian citizens because of an inequitable development process.




 External Security


i).It is the security of the country from aggression by a foreign country.


 

ii).Its maintenance is the sole responsibility of the armed forces.


iii).It falls under the purview of Ministry of Defence


iv).Fighting from external forces involves conventional warfare skills.


v).Human rights issues are generally neglected while fighting a war against foreign country.


vi).External troubles are often a result of boundary disputes or economic competition between two countries.


 

 

Kautilya classified the threats to a country into four categories:

  1. Internal
  2. External
  3. Internally aided External, e.g. when internal terror groups aid hostile nations like Pakistan.
  4. Externally aided Internal, e.g when hostile nations like China support the Maoists of the country.

Thank you 🙂


Lohit Matani is an Indian Police Service (IPS) Officer, serving in Maharastra Cadre. He has deep interest in, and specializes in Internal Security & Disaster Management. He is a published author and a blogger. You can reach him on Facebook or on his blog here or buy his book on Internal Secuity by clicking here.
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ENGLISH LITERATURE Optional Strategy Part-3 for UPSC Mains



When reading 14th-15th-16th Century [William Shakespeare’s King Lear and The Tempest ] the following questions are very important, and would be useful across both texts. [this is not an exhaustive list].


1) The Renaissance – most important movement, although Shakespeare doesn’t necessarily show renaissance traits in his plays [which are better represented by Christopher Marlowe], but the context will help appreciate how, contrary to authors writing morality plays and miracle plays etc in the 14th century,

Shakespeare’s heroes are human figures, not gods or sons of gods, or gifted by gods.

Their only superpower is their will power, ambition, jealousies etc. Just a hint.

2) Look at Reformation – for understanding the growing positive sense of the human intellect and of human capability

3) Language/failure of language/pressure on language to contain vast emotions about society, [although sonnets not mentioned here, neither by Shakespeare not by others but it’s a good idea to look at them and know why suddenly, contrary to epic-length studies of the previous centuries, authors suddenly turned towards a mere 14-line poem.

4) Elizabeth’s reign – its problems, wars, rivalry with Scotland, absence of an heir, a growing, old, ageing queen with no heir, a sense of fear, apprehensions looming large on nation’s fate, the drifting apart of Catholics and Protestants,

Parliament beginning to display its independence which was very new to the English court [especially, if you Know Spenser’s court poetry where knights subsumes all their devotion to the kings and queens, kings and queens were supposed to be chosen by God to rule over people, Shakespeare shows how human agency resigned to accept that willingly, or at least uncomfortable with this passivity.], and population growing to an unprecedented level.

5) human love creating discord in society, an attempt to maintain, keep stable the social order, but in comedies like The Tempest, this social order gets restored. And that is why they are comedies.

In Shakespeare’s tragedies, on the contrary, even when the plays end, one is left with the idea that there is a gap by author’s forceful ending of the play by closing the action by positive/negative ends, and the complex human feelings and hideous desires of ambition, jealousy, hatred etc that motivate people in the first place.

One is alarmed at the human capacity to be a “bad” person. But if you look at Hamlet kind of plays, they make you realize that this pressure to decide, to act, to take revenge etc is something human beings cannot escape.

One is meddled with this constant pressure to decide – something which was not there in the previous century plays where people knew that God will bring peace to everything.

In Shakespeare’s tragedies, there is no respite from Gods. So, it’s like human beings are left to themselves, with no assurance, no help, no recourse to god’s comforts etc. Just imagine, how helpless one would feel in that sort of world.

Shakespeare, that is why, is called one of the earliest modernists.

6) Questions about leadership, frailty of order to control a vast population/kingdom, challenges to leadership,

7) The role of women – Look at different types of women in Shakespeare’s comedies as well as Tragedies – they are hardly puppets.

They are capable of having ambitions much like their men counterparts, or sometimes even more.

Call it sexist, call it feminists, women of Shakespeare’s plays can play men like anything: with their beauties, with their disguised games, with their “overflowing” femininity, or, for that matter.

Although these women show conventional hierarchies of white women/black women, courtly lady women/commoner women, “good women like Ophelia in Hamlet who are just too good/ bad women like lady Macbeth, but the very diverse range of women we encounter in Shakespeare’s plays is amazing. Something we don’t see in previous plays. Also remember- in Shakespeare’s time, boys were playing women’s role, so look at that angle as well how women were not supposed to do certain things in public.

So the entire public/private, political/domestic debate, Shakespeare complicates them. He brings the interiority of domestic issues interlaced with political issues such brilliantly. Personal is indeed political.

8) Apart from that psychological development of characters. I guess is a very important angle to look at. Characters are hard to know from their inside.

They are hardly flat or two-dimensional. So, Shakespeare’s character making is a good point to explore.

Now, let us come to 17th -18th Century.When reading Metaphysical Poetry by John Donne (The following poems mentioned in syllabus: Canonization, Death be not proud, The Good Morrow, On his Mistress going to bed, The Relic), keep in mind the following things most importantly.

1) John Donne’s life – look at that – he was a poet and a court person [several duties], so an imaginative writer taking an interest,

in fact, active interest in the public life of the Nation.

2) Twists and turns of the syntax, look at their language, heavy adjectives etc. Why suddenly after the 16th century of simple sonnets [not simple, actually!], suddenly a different language?

Look at the change in the form of the poems.

3) A different kind of love – mysterious, untidy – very erotic as well [although often disguised], physical desires and spiritual dimension. It’s like wanting to have sex with the God – see, how blasphemous! Imagine what kind of torpor it must have led to!

4) Metaphysical conceits: Why would the poet employ them, why at all? The politics and meanings of conceit – explore it.

5) Role of women and sexual desires – look at how poets/period responds to this.

Neo-classicism
• The Epic
a) John Milton : Paradise Lost, I, II, IV, IX [Originally published in 1667, in ten books]

1) When looking at this book, just explore how Milton was a radical poet for his times. He engages in a fundamental political and religious re-thinking. I think if you do that, you’re done.

Use textual evidence when answering your questions. Look at Milton in line with renaissance – an absolute epitome of individuality – imagine conceptualizing a book in 12 fat, volumes – an act of human ambition and will power ready to devour even God, anything that comes in way of ambition.

2) And look at the way Milton devours classic repertoire of references for his benefit. He is extremely knowledgeable, not a passive person or mediocre person demanding an identity, he is super-prepared to demand a human identity and is willing to fight for it.

Appreciate Milton using this perspective.

3) Role of imagination – Milton became blind eventually, so sometimes people ask you how could a blind person imagine all this – which is a bullshit question, as he talks of heaven and hell and even a man with eyes won’t have access to that!

But anyway, they are the examiners and we are students, so better be prepared.
Satire [an aspect studied within neo-classicism, I divided because Paradise Lost isn’t a satire per se] and the Mock-epic.
a) Alexander Pope. The Rape of the Lock. [Originally published in May 1712]

1) When looking at this, explore the French court angle, its difference to the English court, its whims and fancies, and ladies and knights etc.

2) Their stress on moderation, decorum, urbanity – why, suddenly after the grandness of Milton etc? Explore this.

3) Again, look at the women characters, love as play, a duel to win at, no Shakespearean true “love” but a game of wit where partners need to excel at each other all the time.

This constant business class idea is a good point to explore.

The Romantic Movement
William Wordsworth.

The following poems:
a) Ode on Intimations of Immortality.
b) Tintern Abbey.
c) Three years she grew.
d) She dwelt among untrodden ways.
e) Michael.
f) Resolution and Independence.
g)The World is too much with us.
h) Milton, thou shouldst be living at this hour.
i) Upon Westminster Bridge.

When looking at this, keep in mind the following points:

1) A sense of individuality, development of personal metaphors, personal religion, personal creed.

Not a universal god, for e.g. how the poet imagines the god becomes important.

2) Look at what kind of political social world, the poet imagines and wants. The stress on vision and imagination.

3) Most obviously, role of children.

4) the French Revolution, the sense of human agency, the Napoleonic war where England supplied things and remained involved for like twenty years.

5) Development of Metaphysics in England – an influence from Germany – Kant, Schilling etc.


Read the Previous Posts below: 


ENGLISH LITERATURE Optional Strategy for UPSC Mains Part-1


ENGLISH LITERATURE Optional Strategy for UPSC Mains Part-2


 

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Internal Security for UPSC: Narco-Terrorism by IPS Officer Lohit Matani

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Interview Preparation : Preparing for UPSC Civil Services Personality Test

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Ethics Case Studies on Internal Security and work of an IPS officer

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UPSC Mains: Optional Strategy-2 ENGLISH LITERATURE



Read the Previous post on : ENGLISH LITERATURE Optional Strategy for UPSC Mains


This Article is contributed by a ForumIAS User VSH_DU2015. She is currently pursuing her PhD in English at University of Leeds, UK. She joined ForumIAS a few years ago when she was an M.Phil scholar at University of Delhi and entertained the idea of preparing for CSE. But, the moment she passed her M.Phil and bought all books, she subscribed to websites like ForumIAS ? 


I will show a sample of how an answer is supposed to be written in English Mains paper.


This question is from Section A of Paper I, that came in 2013 Mains. Word limit was 150.

 


Q. The impact of the French Revolution on the English Romantic poets.


 

Answer: [Words:167] [Nobody counts your answers word-by-word, so 5-10 words increase/decrease doesn’t at all matter! But not substantial decrease/increase]

The classic Marxist interpretation of the French Revolution is that it constituted a change from an old feudal order to a new capitalist order and, in essence, amounted to the triumph of the middle-class over the aristocracy. Thus one can say that the most crucial aspect of French Revolution was an increased sense of human agency. Inspired by the Revolution, in the Romantic period, we encounter literature that rejected old literary conventions and tried to find new forms of expression. For e.g. William Blake welcomed French Revolution as an agent that would sweep away old exploitative patterns of social relations; The Lyrical Ballads by Coleridge and Wordsworth, marked a withdrawal from public life and celebrated the subjective insight of the poet, which aided by nature tried to bring a pattern in life. Similarly, Byron showed a desire to strike out a new path, surpassing conventional morality. Based on these examples one can say with confidence that the French Revolution was central to the English Romantic poets.


  • Understanding of the main literary trends during the period with reference to the authors prescribed.
  • Questions on the social and cultural background to the period.
  • First hand reading of the text along with their ability to examine
    literacy problems critically.


These three are most crucial points while taking English Literature as an optional. Are you already preparing?


Please stick to any one book, either Albert which I suggested in my previous post or whatever you’re already referring to. Use bullet points to divide different points but don’t use sub-headings/bullet points otherwise. Literature answers are supposed to be paragraphic. Your syllabus doesn’t mention the word limits for this exam, so just keep it within 300-500 for each important socio-political point.


I think sticking to Forum is a rather good idea as my office computer shows a pop up every time anything happens on anything I visit regularly.


All the Best 🙂



 

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ENGLISH LITERATURE Optional Strategy for UPSC Mains

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Importance of Internal Security and Disaster Management for UPSC : by IPS Officer Lohit Matani

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