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Mains Marathon – 5 Questions on Current Issues – September 6

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Must Read News Articles – September 5

The Hindu

Front Page / National

  • My fight is for transparency, says Justice Chelameswar : The dissenting judge, who had dissented against the Supreme Court ruling of striking down NJAC Act, now says that collegium system needs to be more transparent – refuses to attend meetings of the collegium, and wants minutes of meeting to be made public.
  • The not-so-swachh life of the Railways’ cleaners : Despite the manual scavenger’s bill in place, manual scavenging is still in practise by the Railway. Now the Railways directly does not recruit people for manual scavenging, but hires contractors who do so.

International

  • Hong Kong holds biggest polls since 2014 protests – Young Hong Kong independence activists calling for a complete break from China stood for the first time on Sunday in city-wide legislative elections, the biggest polls since mass pro-democracy protests in 2014.
  • PM balances ties by praising Obama after talks with Xi – Pursuing an approach of multiple engagements, Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Sunday praised U.S. President Barack Obama for his leadership of the G-20 and asserted that the grouping in the future would succeed if it pursued a “collective, coordinated and target-oriented” approach.

Editorial /Opinion

  • Realising energy sector targets – Levying no transmission charge on renewable power will create a State-wide distortion just as freight equalisation of coal did in the past, writes Kirti Parikh
  • Merely a logistics pact? – Recently India has signed a Logistics Exchange Memorandum of Agreement (LEMOA), an agreement that the U.S. has assiduously pursued since 2002 and which India had, till now, resolutely refused to endorse. What is it all about?
  • The gap between rich and poor States –  India is the only large country that is experiencing an economic divergence among its States.
  • From dissent to disapproval – Recently, after disagreeing with the majority on a Constitution Bench that struck down the law enacted to establish a National Judicial Appointments Commission, the judge, who is part of the five-member Supreme Court collegium, has opted to keep out of its proceedings.
  • Rights for abducted children – Today, many Indians live abroad, foreign nationals come to stay in India, and Indians who had earlier moved abroad are now moving back to India. Problems arise when children are caught in this migration, when one parent goes to another country, taking the child along, but without the permission of the other parent.

Economy

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Mains Marathon – Current affairs 22nd August – reference material

1. Flash floods in India’s urban areas are not merely nature’s fury but manmade disasters. Discuss in the light of recent events. What policy measures can be taken to counter this?

Flash floods usually result from intense storms dropping large amounts of rain within a brief period. Flash floods occur with little or no warning and can reach full peak in only a few minutes.

It is important to recognise that urban floods begin with an unanticipated high rainfall event which seriously disrupts public transport, electricity and communications and also plays havoc with the urban economy.

Some examples of flash floods

On December 1, 2015, even in 2005 and 2006, heavy rains from the months of October to December had flooded Chennai.

Located in a relatively flat area, Chennai depends on natural water bodies, canals and rivers to drain the heavy water runoff during rains. Its drainage and storm water network, which is absent in many places, is inadequate even to convey water during moderate rains.

The phenomenon of metropolitan cities receiving excessive rainfall, leading to sudden flooding, has been seen in cities such as Mumbai and Kolkata also.

Natural Causes

  • Heavy Rainfall: Water of Heavy rainfall concentrates and flows quickly through urban paved area and impounded in to low lying area raising the water level. It creates more havoc when a main drain or a river passing through the area over-flows or breaches
  • Lakes: Lakes can store the excess water and regulate the flow of water. When lakes become smaller, their ability to regulate the flow become less and hence causes flooding.
  • Silting: The drains carry large amounts of sediments and deposited in the lower courses making beds shallower thus channel capacity is reduced. When there is heavy rain, these silted drains can’t carry full discharge and result in flooding.

Man-made causes

  • Population pressure: Because of large amount of people, more materials are needed, like wood, land, food, etc. This aggravates overgrazing, over cultivation and soil erosion which increases the risk of flooding.
  • Deforestation: Large areas of forests near the rivers/catchment of cities are used to make rooms for settlements, roads and farmlands and is being cleared due to which soil is quickly lost to drains. This raises the drain bed causing overflow and in turn urban flooding.
  • Trespassing on water storm drains: The areas which were essentially created by the storm water drains to let their flood waters pass freely being tress-passed for developmental purposes result in obstruction of water flow and thus contributed immensely to the fury of floods
  • Un-Authorized colonies: Un-Authorized colonies have been developed by the local colonisers without consideration to the city plans ,drainage, sewerage etc. and thus subjected to flooding during heavy rain falls.
  • Poor Water and Sewerage Management: Old drainage and sewerage system has not been overhauled nor is it adequate now .All the drainage and sewer system in many parts of Delhi has collapsed resulting in flooding. This can be seen during rainy seasons every year.

Recommendations

Mapping flood zones: By combining field surveys, historical records, satellite imagery and infrastructure assessment, they have identified vulnerable areas.

Such maps and data are shared with citizens so that they could decide where to live there or not. More importantly, this data is used to regulate development.  Cities have been divided into zones on the basis of risks.

Indian cities can take lessons and try to come up with the clear risk zones.

Compliance: Only preparing data will not be adequate, unless compliance according to data is not enforced. State governments should be willing to commit to zero tolerance against non-compliance.

Enhance mitigation: Kuala Lumpur and Tokyo have built extensive water discharge tunnels to divert and store floodwater.  Tokyo has one of the largest underground tunnels to hold diverted flood water, which is later pumped into safe watercourses using turbines.

While this system can be extremely expensive, what India can do reclaiming the existing water bodies, which have been reduced to very small areas.

Response measures: Rio de Janerio has spent $14 million and created a real-time monitoring centre of infrastructure and traffic flows. There is need for early warning and dissemination of reliable information about floods and rescue.

Check Illegal constructions: Strict action against illegal encroachments should be taken by checking real estate mafia involved in illegal construction and usurping of water bodies. Clearing flood channels and riverbeds where illegal buildings stand.

Maintenance of existing infrastructures: Regular maintenance of the drainage system by desilting the drainage system across the city.

 

2.How far is state intervention in the cultural space of citizens justified? Discuss in the light of recent judicial pronouncements.

Recent interventions of Courts in religions and cultures spheres

In the most recent judgement SC uphold the Bombay High Court’s decision on Dahi Handi ritual.

Bombay HC had ruled previously that youth below 18 years of age cannot participate in the Dahi Handi ritual, part of the Janmashtami festival, in Maharashtra and the height of the human pyramid for it cannot exceed 20 feet.

In another judgement Supreme Court declined three petitions filed by private individuals to review its May 7, 2014 judgment banning jallikattu (bull-taming sport) as an inherently cruel act.

Constitutional provisions related to religious matters:-

Article 25(1) guarantees the right to freedom of conscience, and the freedom to profess, practice and propagate religion.

However, Article 25(2)(a) allows the State to make laws “regulating or restricting any economic, financial, political or other secular activity which may be associated with religious practice.” And Article 25(2)(a) says that State can take measures to throw open Hindu religious institutions of public character to all classes and sections of Hindus

Article 26(b) guarantees the right of religious denominations to manage their own affairs in matters of religion.

And Article 26(d) allows the denomination to administer property in accordance with law (i.e., subordinating the right to manage property to State-made law).

Article 25(2)(a) and Article 26(d) makes these rights subject to state interventions in certain conditions and it becomes very difficult to interpret that what is included in the rights and what is subject to state intervention.

So to solve this issue Courts have developed two broad doctrinal tools:

  1. A distinction between the religious and the secular,

Article 25(2)(a) provides three illustrations of the secular – the economic, the financial, and the political. 26(d) does something similar with the administration of property. But still there is too much scope for conflict as constitution has provided no further guidance, it is where the role of court comes. Ultimately, this is a question that the Courts must decide.

  1. And the “essential religious practices” test

An essential practise for the religion would be any practise without which the substratum of the religion would fail, any other activity will not be essential religious practise.

There are certain exceptions which are given in the Constitution itself like economic, political, and financial.

While holding that the state cannot use the reform clause to “reform a religion out of existence”, it has nonetheless held that aspects beyond essential practices have no protection from state intervention.

Rationale of intervention

  • The religious conceptions in this country are so vast that they cover every aspect of life, from birth to death.
  • During the debates in the Constituent Assembly, some of the members were in the favor of giving wide, interventionist powers to the state on the ground of the deep and pervasive role that religion played in the lives of Indians.
  • Hence there was need  to limit the definition of religion in such a manner that scope of religion shall not extend beyond beliefs and such rituals as may be connected with ceremonials which are essentially religious.
  • To resolve this issue, SC uphold that the state cannot use the reform clause to “reform a religion out of existence”, it has nonetheless held that aspects beyond essential practices have no protection from state intervention.

Criticisms

  • In determining what constitutes an “essential religious practice”, the Court has failed to lay down a set of consistent principles.
  • The essential religious practices test is an entirely arbitrary doctrine.

 

3.Augmented Reality games raise a serious concern for children’s safety in both real and virtual world. Critically examine.

Some of the games like Pokemon Go, and other advanced AR devices like  Google Glass and HoloLens are present in the market today.

All AR devices whether it is a game or device, distracts people from their surroundings, leading to potentially severe consequences.

While talking about Augmented Reality games, Pokemon Go is one of the best example.

Several countries have issued advisories regarding the game and some have even raised ‘national security’ concerns.

Some examples of safety concerns

A Pokémon Go player was robbed at knife point in New Hampshire, a player got stuck in a tree in a cemetery in New Jersey, a teenager was led to a dead body in a river in Wyoming, and in Baltimore a man drove into a police car while chasing Pokémons.

Safety concerns Linked to children

  • Real-world gameplay has been linked to armed robberies as criminals have used the game to locate and lure intended targets and children are most vulnerable in that scenario.
  • Since these games encourage players to go to areas which may not belong to them. Trespassers whether the children or a mature person face a real threat of physical harm from property owners who may use force to protect their property.
  • The game requires users’ full attention immediately. Children playing games on the roads can meet an accident due to speedy cars or any other cause.
  • Since the game, developed by Niantic, uses Google Maps and has access to IP addresses of the users, it can be used to trace locations, in which case children are the most vulnerable and will be unable to respond to any criminal activities.
  • When a player downloads Pokémon Go, the app gets “full access” to the person’s phone. Children playing games on their parents cellphones could give up personal data in the phones.
  • A number of doctors and psychologists feel that these games adds to the stress levels of the player and children tend to get more stressed due to their immature emotional level.
  • These games can affect a growing child’s ability to distinguish between real and virtual objects.
  • Addicted children will spend most of their time playing these games, compromising their studies and other physical activities.

Way ahead

Accidents and mishaps can be avoided by being more alert and avoiding seedy locations.

The only way to resolve this from the developer’s side would be to maintain a global, up-to-date information bank on what areas are off limits, and alter the gaming experience accordingly. The sheer scale of this task makes it very difficult to accomplish by today’s standards.

 

4.The melting of the Arctic offers new challenges as well as opportunities to developing countries like India. Discuss India’s interests and initiatives in the Arctic. What steps can be taken to further India’s interests in the region?

Arctic has witnessed enormous depletion in its ice cover.

The extent of ice cover on the Arctic has come down to 5.2 million sq km as of September 2014 from an average 7.2 million sq Km in 1979.

Opportunities

  • Arctic contains 90 billion barrels of oil, 1,670 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 44 billion barrels of natural gas, which is approximately 13% of the world’s undiscovered oil resources, 30% of its undiscovered natural gas resources, and 20% of its undiscovered natural gas.
  • India, being the fourth-largest energy consumer in the world, can explore the hydrocarbon potential of this region.
  • By involvement in the research in the region, countries like India will be able to understand the dynamics of glaciers melting, which it will be able to use in the regional problem of glaciers melting in Himalayas.
  • Melting of Arctic ice will reduce the sailing distance between Asian ports and northern Europe by 40 per cent.
  • Alternate sea route will also save the developing countries to take the piracy infested conventional route.
  • Developing countries like India, which has been accorded with the permanent observer status in the Arctic Council, could play a decisive role in shaping the policies for the future of the ecologically fragile Arctic region

Challenges for developing countries like India

  • Enhancement of economic activity in the Arctic Region will accelerate global warming and lead to large sea level rise.
  • Melting ice may also add to the problem of global warming with its reduced capacity to absorb carbon dioxide.
  • Any imminent change in the Arctic is going to affect the monsoon system, which may fall worst on the agrarian economy.
  • This may also results in thermal expansion, which increases the sea level, thereby allowing melted glacial water to flow into tributaries of Himalayan Rivers.
  • Adding more water in the sea may result in submergence of coastal areas.
  • The waters of the Arctic Sea will absorb more sunlight as the ice thins down. This may affect the ocean currents.
  • The opening of arctic shipping routes and the exploration of mineral, hydrocarbons and marine living resources would add to the prosperity of the already affluent countries and would thus deepen the North-South divide.
  • The melting of arctic ice and the commercial exploitation of the resources would have detrimental affect on the local inhabitants like Inuits, Chukchis, Lapps etc

Way ahead for India

  • India’s interests in the Arctic region are scientific, environmental, commercial as well as strategic.
  • India should remain engaged with the leading organisations like the Arctic Council where many important decisions on the future of the Arctic region will be taken. Decisions regarding Arctic can have direct or indirect impact on India.
  • In order to advance its stakes in the Arctic, India must establish increased bilateral dialogues with the Arctic littorals.
  • The Arctic has enough hydrocarbons to cater to India’s energy needs, but India does not have sufficient technical capability to undertake Arctic exploration.
  • India could raise the concerns of the local inhabitants at fora such as UN and thus play a leading role in advancing human rights of the indigenous people.
  • India should leverage its experience from the studies in the Arctic, Antarctica and the Himalayas (third pole) to guide global policy formulation on climate change and its consequent impacts

 

 

5.Fundamental duties can help balance out rights of citizens and further make them more responsible towards the country’s development. What additional fundamental duties in your opinion can help achieve this goal?

The Fundamental Duties are defined as the moral obligations of all citizens to help promote a spirit of patriotism and to uphold the unity of India. The idea for Fundamental Duties has been taken from erstwhile USSR.

India’s original constitution contained only fundamental rights and not fundamental duties. 11 Fundamental duties were added in Indian constitution Article 51A by the 42nd Constitutional amendment act, 1976 on the recommendations of Swaran Singh committee.

Fundamental duties establish democratic balance by making the people conscious of their duties equally as they are conscious of their rights.

Balancing out rights:-

When rights and responsibilities are balanced, freedom is enhanced.

They serve as a reminder to the citizens that while enjoying their rights, they should also be conscious of duties they owe to their country, their society and to their fellow citizens.

They serve as a source of inspiration for the citizens and promote a sense of discipline and commitment among them.

There is growing perception that excessive emphasis on exercise of fundamental rights by citizens diminishes the importance of performance of correlative duties, has grown the importance of guiding principles. This function is being performed by fundamental duties in the constitution.

Fundamental duties make citizens responsible:- 

  • Fundamental Duties constitute the conscience of our Constitution. They should be treated as constitutional values that must be propagated by all citizens.
  • Fundamental duties define the moral obligations of all citizens.
  • Fundamental duties serve as a warning against the anti-national and antisocial activities.
  • Fundamental duties make citizen conscious of his social and citizenship responsibilities and so shape the society in which all become solicitous and considerate of the inalienable rights of our fellow citizens

Additional fundamental duties:-

Duty to vote

The state can take several steps to ensure that this duty to vote is made operational and effective. One method through which this may be achieved is by developing a system of incentives for voters and conversely disadvantages for those who abstain.

Duty to pay taxes

Citizens must believe that their taxes are bound to be used for public good. The incorporation of the right to pay taxes as part of Fundamental Duties in the Constitution will shift the onus onto the taxpayer to pay taxes rather than the tax department to collect them.

Duty to help accident victims:

According to the Law Commission of India, at least 50 per cent of fatalities can be prevented if road accident victims receive medical attention within the critical first hour after the accident. With the increase in the number of accidents, it has become pertinent for India to recognise this duty as one owed by its citizens towards each other.

Duty to keep the premises clean:

The most effective mechanism to tackle uncleanliness is to sensitise people about this duty. Therefore, it is imperative that a Fundamental Duty to this effect be added to the Constitution.

Duty to protect whistle-blowers

While the state has a great deal of responsibility in providing for their protection through appropriate legislative instruments, the responsibility to protect torchbearers of transparency vests on each one of us.

 

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[Solutions] – The 10 PM Daily Quiz – 30 July, 2016

solution1

[Solutions]

Q.1 Which of the following can be considered as a check against misuse of capital punishment in India?

a) Approaching the Supreme Court in case the death penalty is upheld by the lower courts

b) Approaching the President if the death penalty is upheld by Supreme Court

c) Both (a) and (b)

d) None of these

Ans: c) Under Article 72, the appeal lies to the President and under Article 134, the appeal lies to the Supreme Court.

 

Q.2 Million Minds Augmenting National Aspirations and Knowledge (MANAK) scheme falls under:

a) Department of Science and Technology

b) Ministry of Women and Child Development

c) Ministry of Minority Affairs

d) None of these

Ans: a) Self explanatory

 

Q.3 As per ILO convention , minimum age for employment should not be:

a) Less than 14 years

b) Less than 18 years

c) Less than the age of completion of compulsory schooling

d) Less than the age of completion of higher education

Ans: c) ILO convention says minimum age for employment should not be less than the age of completion of compulsory schooling which is 14 years of age in India’s case.

 

Q.4 Article 72 of the Indian constitution deals with:

a) Power of the Supreme Court to quash the order of the High Courts

b) Power of President to grant pardons, etc, and to suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases

c) Power of Governor to grant pardons, etc, and to suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases

Ans: b) Article 72 deals with Power of President to grant pardons, etc, and to suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases

The President shall have the power to grant pardons, reprieves, respites or remissions of punishment or to suspend, remit or commute the sentence of any person convicted of any offence

(a) in all cases where the punishment or sentence is by a court Martial;
(b) in all cases where the punishment or sentence is for an offence against any law relating to a matter to which the executive power of the Union extends;
(c) in all cases where the sentence is a sentence of death

 

Q.5 Kovada Nuclear Power Plant will be based in which among the following states:

a) Andhra Pradesh

b) Tamil Nadu

c) Gujarat

d) Kerala

Ans: a) In Kovvada village of Andhra Pradesh, government has planned strings of nuclear power plants under the 2008 India-US Civil Nuclear Agreement in 2008.

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The 10 PM Daily Quiz – 30 July, 2016

30-july (2)

Hi Friends,

The purpose of these questions is to enable practice on a daily level for you to prepare Current Affairs for Civil Services Prelims Examination. This questions will be moderate level and it is expected of you solve these questions with decent overview of 9 PM Brief.

Please type your answers in the comments below .

Note : Answers to the quiz will be posted one day later.

 

Q.1 Which of the following can be considered as a check against misuse of capital punishment in India?

a) Approaching the Supreme Court in case the death penalty is upheld by the lower courts

b) Approaching the President if the death penalty is upheld by Supreme Court

c) Both (a) and (b)

d) None of these

 

Q.2 Million Minds Augmenting National Aspirations and Knowledge (MANAK) scheme falls under:

a) Department of Science and Technology

b) Ministry of Women and Child Development

c) Ministry of Minority Affairs

d) None of these

 

Q.3 As per ILO convention , minimum age for employment should not be:

a) Less than 14 years

b) Less than 18 years

c) Less than the age of completion of compulsory schooling

d) Less than the age of completion of higher education

 

Q.4 Article 72 of the Indian constitution deals with:

a) Power of the Supreme Court to quash the order of the High Courts

b) Power of President to grant pardons, etc, and to suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases

c) Power of Governor to grant pardons, etc, and to suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases

 

Q.5 Kovada Nuclear Power Plant will be based in which among the following states:

a) Andhra Pradesh

b) Tamil Nadu

c) Gujarat

d) Kerala

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[Solutions] – The 10 PM Daily Quiz – 29 July, 2016

solution1

Q.1 Compensatory Afforestation fund will receive money for which of the following sources:

a) Net Present Value of the forest

b) Economic values of trees that are being cut

c) Economic value of fauna that is being displaced

d) None of these

Ans: a) There is nothing like economic value of the trees or fauna which is being provided for in the bill. Net present value of forests is being provided for.

 

Q.2 Consider the following statements:

1. States have to compulsorily adopt the Central Pay Commission (CPC) recommendations

2. Adoption the recommendations of CPC tends to put fiscal strain on most of the states

Which of the statements given is/are true?

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) None of these

Ans: b) It is not mandatory for the states to adopt recommendations of CPC but as a norm, most of the State governments, under pressure from the unions, adopt the Central Pay Commission recommendation.

States have limited financial resources and these recommendations put financial strain on them.

 

Q.3 Which of the following are prominent issues in Indo-US trade?

1. WTO disputes pertaining to poultry imports, solar panels

2. Fee hike in major visa categories

3. India’s model BIT excludes most favoured nation clause

Identify the correct statement:

a) 1 only

b) 1 and 2 only

c) 2 and 3 only

d) 1, 2 and 3

Ans: d) All the 3 are prominent issues in Indo-US trade.

 

Q.4 Which of the following is correct regarding Green Bonds:

a) These are debt instruments will be used for development of projects related to renewable energy

b) Green Bond market has become mature and well developed across the world and in India

c) One of the reason why green bonds have not picked up is because of alternate government polices like Reverse Purchase Obligations (RPO).

d) None of these

Ans : a) Green bond market is still in its nascent stage as it is very now, hence, it is not yet mature and well developed especially in India.

Alternative policies like RPOs which puts obligation on discoms to have a part of renewable energy in total energy mix, favour Green Bonds and are not anti green bonds.

 

Q.5 Which of the following factors can cause an increase in inflation?

a) RBI following a tighter money policy

b) Below normal rainfall

c) Low Public Expenditure

d) Both (a) and (b)

 

Ans: b) Tighter monetary policy, reduces the level of currency circulating in the market and is used to address inflation, not increase it.

Low public expenditure by the govt. means less money in the hands of people = Less inflation.

Below norma rainfall results in less agriculture productivity which cause an increase in prices of food commodity. Food products have the highest weightage in CPI , hence it increases inflation.

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The 10 PM Daily Quiz – 29 July, 2016

29-july (2)

Hi Friends,

The purpose of these questions is to enable practice on a daily level for you to prepare Current Affairs for Civil Services Prelims Examination. This questions will be moderate level and it is expected of you solve these questions with decent overview of 9 PM Brief.

Please type your answers in the comments below .

Note : Answers to the quiz will be posted one day later.

 

Q.1 Compensatory Afforestation fund will receive money for which of the following sources:

a) Net Present Value of the forest

b) Economic values of trees that are being cut

c) Economic value of fauna that is being displaced

d) None of these

 

Q.2 Consider the following statements:

1. States have to compulsorily adopt the Central Pay Commission (CPC) recommendations

2. Adoption the recommendations of CPC tends to put fiscal strain on most of the states

Which of the statements given is/are true?

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) None of these

 

Q.3 Which of the following are prominent issues in Indo-US trade?

1. WTO disputes pertaining to poultry imports, solar panels

2. Fee hike in major visa categories

3. India’s model BIT excludes most favoured nation clause

Identify the correct statement:

a) 1 only

b) 1 and 2 only

c) 2 and 3 only

d) 1, 2 and 3

 

Q.4 Which of the following is correct regarding Green Bonds:

a) These are debt instruments will be used for development of projects related to renewable energy

b) Green Bond market has become mature and well developed across the world and in India

c) One of the reason why green bonds have not picked up is because of alternate government polices like Reverse Purchase Obligations.

d) None of these

 

Q.5 Which of the following factors can cause an increase in inflation?

a) RBI following a tighter money policy

b) Below normal rainfall

c) Low Public Expenditure

d) Both (a) and (b)

 

 

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[Solutions] Friday Science Quiz #18

friday-solution

[Solutions]

Q.1 Consider the following statements regarding Highest Terrestrial Research Centre.

1. It is being established in Himachal Pradesh.

2. It will serve as a natural cold storage for preserving endangered and rare medical plants for future generations.

3. It has been established by DRDO.

Select the incorrect statement using the codes given below.

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) 1 and 3 only

d) 2 and 3 only
Ans: a) Explanation:

Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) has established the world’s Highest Terrestrial Research Centre near Pengong Lake at Changla in Ladakh.

  1. Defence Institute of High Altitude Research (DIHAR) was nodal DRDO establishment to established this.
  2. Will serve as a natural cold storage for preserving endangered and rare medical plants for future generations. Number of Life Sciences activities will be undertaken too.
  3. It will be very important centre of research work in frontal areas of food and agriculture and bio-medical sciences for well-being of the soldiers deployed in high altitude cold desert.
  4. It will serve as testing ground of various materials for high altitude applications in naturally occurring extreme cold conditions at Changla.

 

DRDO was established in 1958 with an objective to administer the Indian Army and Indian Air Force. It has been carrying out RnD work for these forces and has produced good number of weapons and related utilities. It mainly functions in establishing the defence technology systems and some critical technologies  like small arms, missile systems,  tanks, armoured vehicles etc.

Q.2 Genetically engineered mosquitoes are being suggested to fight mosquito borne diseases. How will such mosquitoes help in fight against Dengue and Malaria?

a) The GM mosquitoes will predate on mosquitoes that carry the disease

b) The GM mosquitoes will procreate with existing mosquitoes and produce off-springs that cannot mature
c) The GM mosquitoes will slowly increase in population replacing normal mosquitoes.
d) The GM mosquitoes’ blood will be used to develop vaccines for Dengue and Malaria
Ans: b)

Genetically modified mosquitoes work with the single goal of reducing the total number of mosquitoes , who act as carriers of the disease. GM Mosquitoes procreate with the existing mosquito population such that the progeny is incapable of maturing or further reproduction.

In India one company Gangabishan Bhikulal Investment and Trading Ltd. (GBIT), a sister company of the Maharashtra Hybrid Company (Mahyco) that first brought Bt cotton to India, has been breeding genetically modified male mosquitoes(Aedes aegypti) to combat Zika virus.

Genetical modification is modification of the genome of the organism using Genetic engineering techniques. This has long been the practice to breed select individuals of a species in order to produce offspring that have desirable traits.

 

Malaria is one of the most deadly diseases in the world, killing 500,000 people annually and sickening hundreds of millions. It is caused by Anopheles mosquito.

Dengue caused by Aedes aegypti gives a fever which is so excruciating that it is often called the “bone breaker,” causing severe pain in the joints and abdomen along with vomiting, and circulatory system failure.

Q.3 Consider the following statements about Vector- Borne Diseases (VBDs)?

1. Japanese  encephalitis,  kala-azar,  filariasis and  chikungunya  are  the  only  four  VBDs found  in  India.

2. People suffering from diabetes are more susceptible to VBDs.

Select the incorrect statement using the codes given below.

a )1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2
Ans: a) In India,  VBDs  affecting  people  include malaria,  dengue,  Japanese  encephalitis, kala-azar,  lymphatic  filariasis  and chikungunya.  People  suffering  from diabetes  are  more  susceptible to  VBDs because  of  the  fact  that  high  blood  sugar in  their  bodies  (resulting  in  high susceptibility),  and  lower  levels  of immunity,  makes  them  more  prone  to VBDs.

Q.4 Match the following pairs

A) Protozoa                    1) microscopic organisms that do not multiply within the human body

B) Ectoparasites            2) organisms that attach or burrow in the skin

C) Helminths                  3) can be transmitted through oral-fecal route

Select the correct answers from the codes given below

a) A – 3, B – 1, C – 2

b) A – 1, B – 2, C – 3

c) A – 3, B – 2, C – 1

d) A – 2, B – 3, C – 1
Ans: a) 

  1. Protozoa

Protozoa are microscopic, one-celled organisms that can either be free-living or parasitic. They’re able to multiply in humans, causing serious infections to develop from just one single organism. Protozoa can be transferred to humans through a fecal-oral route from contaminated food or water, or from the bite of an insect such as a mosquito.

  1. Helminths

Helminths are multicellular organisms that are actually quite large. They’re generally visible to the naked eye in their adult stages. They can be either free-living or parasitic, and they do not have the ability to multiply in humans, but they can still cause damage. Helminths include flatworms, tapeworms, thorny-headed worms and roundworms.

  1. Ectoparasites

This term is more generally used to refer to organisms such as ticks, fleas, lice and mites that attach or burrow into the skin and stay there for weeks to months at a time. These organisms can easily transfer diseases to humans.

Q.5 EIROforum is:

a) European intergovernmental scientific research organisations devoted to fostering mutual activities

b) European non-governmental scientific research organisations devoted to fostering mutual activities

c) European and Russian intergovernmental scientific research organisations devoted to fostering mutual activities

d) European and Russian non-governmental scientific research organisations devoted to fostering mutual activities
Ans: a) European intergovernmental scientific research organisations devoted to fostering mutual activities

Q.6 Consider the following minerals:

1. Chlorine

2. Iron

3. Sulphur

Which of the minerals given above is/are required by plants as micronutrients for nutrition?

a) 2 only

b) 1 and 2 only

c) 2 and 3 only

d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans: b)European intergovernmental scientific research organisations devoted to fostering mutual activities

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[Solutions] – The 10 PM Daily Quiz – 28 July, 2016

solution1

[Solutions]

Q.1 Benami Transactions Amendment bill defines a benami transaction as such a property transactions where:

1. The transaction is made in a fictitious name

2. The person providing the consideration for the property is not traceable

Identify the correct statement:

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) 1 and 2

d) None of these

Ans: c) You can refer this article : Click here

 

Q.2 Which among the following changes have been recently made in the GST bill?

a) Removal of 1% additional tax levy by manufacturing state

b) Introduction 0f 75% compensation to states for 5 years

c) Keeping petroleum products out of the purview

d) Both (a) and (b)

Ans: a) There is an Introduction 0f 100% compensation to states for 5 years and not 75%.

Petroleum products were kept outside the purview from the beginning itself as a part of the original bill, this is not a change.

 

Q.3 Consider the following statements regarding Compensatory Afforestation Fund bill:

1. The bill seeks to establish Compensatory Afforestation, Management and Planning Authority (CAMPA) at both the national as well as the state level

2. The bill provides that CAMPA will manage the funds with the help of local people and tribal communities

Identify the incorrect statement:

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) 1 and 2 only

d) None of these

Ans: a) One of the major criticisms against the bill is that the management and afforestation relies completely on bureaucracy and there is no networking with the local communities involved. Hence Statement 2 is incorrect.

 

Q.4 Which of the following factors can attribute to India’s growth in the near future?

1. Good and uniformly distributed monsoonal rainfall

2. Fall in Consumer Price Index

Identify the correct statement:

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) None of these

Ans: c) Good rainfall means better crop production which will push up agriculture growth and hence the overall growth. Fall in CPI means less inflation which again is a positive growth factor.

 

Q.5 Deficient Rainfall Impact Parameter (DRIP) index has been prepared by:

a) ICAR

b) Ministry of Earth Sciences

c) Crisil

d) None of these

Ans: c) Self Explanatory

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Friday Science Quiz #18

 

friday

[Questions]

Q.1 Consider the following statements regarding Highest Terrestrial Research Centre.

1. It is being established in Himachal Pradesh.

2. It will serve as a natural cold storage for preserving endangered and rare medical plants for future generations.

3. It has been established by DRDO.

Select the incorrect statement using the codes given below.

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) 1 and 3 only

d) 2 and 3 only
Q.2 Genetically engineered mosquitoes are being suggested to fight mosquito borne diseases. How will such mosquitoes help in fight against Dengue and Malaria?
a) The GM mosquitoes will predate on mosquitoes that carry the disease

b) The GM mosquitoes will procreate with existing mosquitoes and produce off-springs that cannot mature
c) The GM mosquitoes will slowly increase in population replacing normal mosquitoes.
d) The GM mosquitoes’ blood will be used to develop vaccines for Dengue and Malaria

Q.3 Consider the following statements about Vector- Borne Diseases (VBDs)?

1. Japanese  encephalitis,  kala-azar,  filariasis and  chikungunya  are  the  only  four  VBDs found  in  India.

2. People suffering from diabetes are more susceptible to VBDs.

Select the incorrect statement using the codes given below.

a )1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Q.4 Match the following pairs

A) Protozoa                    1) microscopic organisms that do not multiply within the human body

B) Ectoparasites            2) organisms that attach or burrow in the skin

C) Helminths                  3) can be transmitted through oral-fecal route

Select the correct answers from the codes given below

a) A – 3, B – 1, C – 2

b) A – 1, B – 2, C – 3

c) A – 3, B – 2, C – 1

d) A – 2, B – 3, C – 1

Q.5 EIROforum is:

a) European intergovernmental scientific research organisations devoted to fostering mutual activities

b) European non-governmental scientific research organisations devoted to fostering mutual activities

c) European and Russian intergovernmental scientific research organisations devoted to fostering mutual activities

d) European and Russian non-governmental scientific research organisations devoted to fostering mutual activities

Q.6 Consider the following minerals:

1. Chlorine

2. Iron

3. Sulphur

Which of the minerals given above is/are required by plants as micronutrients for nutrition?

a) 2 only

b) 1 and 2 only

c) 2 and 3 only

d) 1, 2 and 3