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“In the Indian governance system, the role of non-state actors has been only marginal.” Critically examine this statement.

2.“In the Indian governance system, the role of non-state actors has been only marginal.” Critically examine this statement. (GS 2)
” भारतीय शासकीय तंत्र में, गैर-राजकीय कर्ताओं की भूमिका सीमित ही रही है |” इस कथन का समालोचनात्मक परीक्षण कीजिए|

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  • Rachna
  • Nayan Kumar

    Please review

  • Nayan Kumar

    Nonstate actors are actors that don’t engage in exercise of political power of the state. They are in fact not linked to the state. But they exercise considerable influence on the state machinery.. sometime directly and sometimes indirectly. Examples- ngo pressure groups Ingo etc

    The role of non state actors varies from society to society. Their role mostly depends on the type of govt that one country has. Democracy provides the most open ground for these actors to Operate freely. In India the role these actors have seen both active and passive phases.
    After independence their role remained passive due to the peculiar conditions that prevailed during that time- centralisation, one party dominance etc. Their position futher declined during the emergency period which saw curtailment of their freedom to operate. But post emergency period however the role of these actors have increased. Following emergency saw active participation of non state actors. Indian democracy also provides solid grounds for their operation. Various international human rights orgs are operating in india- amnesty international human rights watch red Cross. These orgs have freely questioned govt for their failures. Various pressure groups have managed to influence govt policies. Trade unions peasant orgs student orgs continue to mobilize people to secure their interest. Indian constitution provides for the right of people to form orgs which further solidify the position of non state actors.

    Depsite some ups and downs non state actors in India have operated freely and and have managed to exercise their influence on the govt

  • Powered Words

    Indian governance system lies on the pillars of the state and non-state actors. Non state actors mainly refers to NGOs.civil society,pressure groups and voluntary organisations.They have been an integrated part of policy design,implementation and their evaluation. But the role of non-state actors have remained only marginal becz of following reasons:
    1. Late engagement: Non state actors have been lately engaged into policy formulation and implementation. Though they make important roles in Social audits,social impact assessment and environmental impact assessment of govt. schemes.
    2. Dependency on govt. for funding: In country like India,there is a crisis of funding for sustenance.Many such actors disappear due to poor funding.
    3. Erosion in credibility: Recently,there have been many NGOs declared forging with illegal funding and banned under Foreign currency(regulation) act. This hampers the credibility of these actors.
    4. Hindrance to developmental growth in certain cases: There have been many cases where the protests to governement policies have turned detrimental to developmental growth.e.g. case of Kundakulam nuclear plant, many other coal and thermal power plant. So essentilly leads to mass radicalisation and many projects go stalled. Thus, non state actors lose their significance for constructive criticism.

    Thus, though there have been significant success of these societal fragments towards democracy like RTI,MGNREGA,RSBY.ICDS etc, but due to the above reasons, their roles have not flourished as expected than only marginal.

  • Supermanreturns

    ok sir

  • zen approach

    thanks a lot sir for review .

  • Sherlock- the final problem

    Ok sir…. Thanks for review and guidance. Its helping me alot .

  • Nicky

    Sure, will do that. Tanq!

  • ForumIAS

    Good answer..

  • ForumIAS

    Nice but the actual part which shows the role of non state actors part is marginal is not explained in the answer…The approach is right..Keep writing..

  • ForumIAS

    Very nice answer and to the point…The only improvement could be a better way forward and conclusion at the end..

  • ForumIAS

    The points under non state actors role is marginal can be elaborated more…Rest is fine..

  • ForumIAS

    You have analysed only one part of the question..Critically examine part is missed out..please check it..Rest is good..

  • ForumIAS

    Very nice diversified analysis ….however as the question demands answer to be critically examined,the aspect which highlights the role of non state actors is marginal needs to be explained too..

  • ForumIAS

    Excellent points..However in the conclusion some suggestions could have been mentioned more..

  • Parijat K
  • mj

    Different dimensions have been covered well.

  • Brar MS

    thankyou for the input buddy

  • Lokmanya
  • Sherlock- the final problem

    In hiv bill there was consultation..but govt didnt agree with the demand of providing free treatment to all ..instead added a clause of ‘as far as possible ‘
    CS is palying a big role on ground level too..

  • Brar MS

    Thanks for your review, but i feel you cannot say everything is fine.
    1)Critical question need a non-bias approach, so it is mandatory to write both in favour of the statement and majorly against the statement
    2)Yes, in paper Civil society is playing a role but no much on ground.
    3)Many bill are not made in consulation with civil society eg HIV Bill

    Overall, it is true that lately it has started to play an important role

  • Nicky

    Non-state actors can be MNCs, NGOs, Social movements and other bodies that are not part of government. Governance is a process of decision-making involving multiple actors.

    In the Indian governance system, the role of non-state actors is significant:

    1. Electoral Democracy – NGOs like ADR and NEC brought out extent of criminalisation of politics. A PIL was filed by ADR which lead to apex judgement for disclosing education details, criminal records and income of contesters.

    2. Development – NGOs like Akshaya Patra take part in implementation of MDM.

    3. MNCs – FICCI like bodies represent corporate and business entities and take part in corporate policy making.

    4. Social movements like Chipko and RTI movement have brought impact on policy making.

    In the Indian governance system, the role of non-state actors is marginal:

    1. Budgeting process

    2. Environmental conservation

    3. Science and Technology policy

    4. North East region development

    5. Women development

    Though the role of NSAs is marginal in many sectors or areas, they have played significant role in some sectors or areas. MAXIMUM Governance can be strengthened with the involvement of NSAs and result the inclusive and sustainable development of country.

  • Jumbo

    Non state actors are the groups which are not directly associated with the government but affect the governance by various means- Lobbying, demonstration, public opinions, supplimenting government efforts etc. Pressure groups, NGO, voluntary groups- cooperatives, Self regulatory bodies etc. can be considered Non state actors.
    In India role of Non state actors have been marginal –
    a. Social sphere- 1. Mobilisation of public opinion and awareness about the issues in various sectors- eg; health education etc. can help government to make better policies. But non state activity in these areas have been limited.
    b.Political sphere-
    1. Activities to increase the accountability and transparency in the government has remained limited. Creation of “Democratic pressure” on government requires the massive awareness campaigns where non state actors play an important role.
    c. Government NGO collaboration can lead to effective implementation of various government programs. But very less collaboration are happening on this side.
    d. On various important occassions eg; budget formulation activity of the non state actor not as high as in other developed democratic countries.
    e. Very few actors, pressure groups engaged in to publish the reports of various sectors eg: agriculture, govrenance etc. which can highlight issues to the bureaucrates.
    f. In areas like to measure the outcome, effectivity and evaluation of policies also role of non state actor has been remained limited.
    But, they also have played important role in the governance eg:
    a. Majdoor- kisan sangathan played important role in pressurising gov. to bring the Right to information act
    b. Business chambers like- FICCI, ASSOCHAM organises various seminars and brings reports of business to highlight issues with the government policies. This activity is low in areas like agriculture, health etc.
    c. Various NGO along with the government playing vital role in the implementation of various prog. related to the HIV, T.B control etc.
    Non state actor from time to time has ensured that the aspiration of a particular sector are reflected in the government policies, laws etc. But there activity has remained largely limited in only few sphere eg; business groups. There is need for government to encourage these actors in other criticle areas.

  • Sherlock- the final problem
  • Sherlock- the final problem

    Bro , civil society is playing a big role in policy implementation. All schemes have provision of including civil society for implementation.. Also every bill n policy is put in public domain for consultation and suggestions..u cant say there is lack of pre legislative screening. You can say suggestions are not inculcated…qustn is to critically examine the statement. You have to start with how civil society is playing a part in governance n not vice versa….

  • Brar MS

    Governance refer to way the decision are made for resource utilisation by involving multiple actors.Indian governance system consist of Governemtn, NGO and Civil society , Private companies

    Marginal Role of non-state actors:
    1)Policy implementation: Civil society doesnot play a significant role in policy implementation leading to poor implementation eg social empowerment of schedule caste
    2)Subordinate legislation: Bureaucracy plays a maximum role in its formation and private companies and civil society are seldom consulted leading to poor quality regulation eg IT regulation
    3)Prelegislative screening: there is a lack of such screening whereby non-state actor are consulted before law formation leading to concerns eg concern in HIV bill

    Strengthening role of non-state actor:
    1)Policy formulation: civil society has played an important role in forming National health policy 2017
    2)NGO like MKSS of rajasthan has played an important role in forcing governemt to come up with right to information to bring transparency
    3)Social accountability via social audit etc have seen increased role of these actor
    4)Welfare scheme and program implementation have started to be implemented via NGO eg funding to ngo for de-addiciton centres

    National policy on volunatary organisation envisages increased role of non state actor in governance. Despite the problem faced by non-state actor in term of tranparency in funding they have started to play an important role in governance system

  • zen approach
  • Inder Singh
  • mj
  • Manoj
  • Supermanreturns

    The role of Non State actors was marginal in the pre independence era but it has steadily improved since then and is an important player in forming policies of the government –
    1) Pre-1947 :-
    – FICCI Plan and Bombay Plan were introduced by Big industrialist but they were given even due attention by the congress at that time.
    – No. of NGO’s was less than 1000 at that time, so they couldn’t exert much influence on the government.
    – Bodies like Bar council of India etc. were not active at that time.

    2) Post-1947 :-
    – FICCI, CII, NASSCOM etc. organizations play a vital role in formulation of economic policies of India.
    – The no. of NGO’s and other such organizations has increased to more than 20 lakh and the cooperate with government in both implementation of certain policies as well as in their formulation.
    – BCI, PCI, MCI etc. have come up to protect their interest and they do so by putting pressure on the government directly or indirectly.

    The role of Non state actors have grown in Independent India instead of decreasing. They play a vital role in providing good governance to the citizens of the country and accelerating the economic growth of the country.

  • Jyoti Singh
  • Non State Actor play an important role in democratic system of checks and balances. They constitute the NGOs, Media Houses and Not Profit Organisation working to strengthening Indian democracy. Their role has however been marginal because-

    1) Independence- of these bodies is questioned due to interference of political parties and their important role in political lobbying and funding
    2) Legislative – power of GOI through FCRA norms and other laws restricts their functioning in the hands of the government (eg- Sec 126, 126A of RP Act, Cinematography Act, Media Regulations etc)
    3) Reach- of these bodies is minuscule due to the vast size of India. Government led media like AIR claim 90%+ coverage only.
    4) Financing – these bodies depend on controlled routes like foreign and Government funding routes which compromises their independence
    5) National Security & Moral Policing of Government prevents firm establishments of these bodies eg- Compassion International, Ban on NDTV etc.

    Therefore due to high GOI interventions and control there role have been limited. However they have played an independent role because-

    1) Judicial Review & PIL have helped in protecting against irrational GOI policies and media gagging
    2) Awareness and Information sharing have been the most important role of these bodies due to which Poll percentages have increased over the past decades to > 60%+
    3) Critique of GOI policies
    4) Social projects in rural and urban centres including supporting GOI schemes

    India being a participative democracy need the support of these bodies however due to increased GOI interventions their growth has been marginal. Going forward their role to be furthered through 1) Ensuring Freedom of Media (Art 19) 2) Promoting Reach of these bodies 3) Integration in GOI projects 4) COntrolling Political & NOn State Bodies nexus.