- To effectively address the emerging urbanization challenges, the Ministry of Urban Development has come out with a multi-pronged policy framework to promote living close to mass urban transit corridors.
Transit Oriented Development (TOD)
- This new initiatives seeks to promote ‘Transit Oriented Development (TOD)’ which enables people to live within walking or cycling distance from transit corridors like the Metros, Monorail and Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) corridors, currently being taken up on a large scale.
‘National Transit Oriented Development Policy’
- The Ministry has formulated a ‘National Transit Oriented Development Policy’ which will be discussed with the States and Union Territories at a National Workshop on Urban Development.
- This policy seeks to enhance the depth of understanding of States and UTs on TOD as a viable solution to many of the challenges like haphazard urban growth and sprawl, mobility, rapidly rising private vehicles on roads, pollution, housing choices etc.
- This new urban design and planning in the form of TOD, is being incentivesed by the Ministry under two more initiatives viz., Metro Policy and Green Urban Mobility Scheme which also will be discussed with States and UTS for taking them on board.
- Under TOD, city densification will be promoted along mass transit corridors through vertical construction by substantially enhancing FARs (Floor Area Ratio) backed by promotion of Non-motorised Transport Infrastructure for walking and cycling to transport stations.
- Development of street networks in the influence zone of transit corridors, multi-modal integration, effective first and last mile connectivity through feeder services to enable people access public transit in 5 to 10 minutes from home and work places.
- Dense living along transit corridors besides resulting in enhanced living and travel experience, will also improve ridership of mass transit systems.
- If properly executed, TOD could emerge as a means of financing mass transit project, for which the demand is growing.
- TOD promotes integration of land use planning with transportation and infrastructure development to avoid long distance travel in cities through compact development as against the present pattern of unplanned and haphazard urban growth.
- Under the new Metro Policy, TOD has been mandatory while under Green Urban Mobility Scheme, TOD has been made an essential reform and is given priority for receiving central assistance.
- The Ministry’s initiative comes in the context of over 300 km of Metro lines being operational in seven cities, another 600 kms of metro line projects under construction in 12 cities and over 500 km projects under consideration.
- The Ministry has supported BRTS projects in 12 cities which are under different stages of progress and eight more cities are set to take up BRT projects.
- Mass Rail Transit System of 380 km length is being taken up in Delhi.
Financing of TOD
- Transit Oriented Development will be financed by channelizing a part of increases in property values resulting from investments in transit corridors through Betterment Levies and Value Capture Financing tools.
- Increased private sector participation will result in economic development and employment generation.
- TOD Policy also aims at inclusive development by ensuring mixed neighborhood development in the form of a range of housing choices including affordable housing and ensuring spaces for street vendors.
- States and UTs will be required to incorporate TOD in the Master Plans and Development Plans of cities besides identifying ‘Influence Zones’ from transit corridors for tapping revenue streams.
TOD is being taken up Ahmedabad, Delhi (kakardooma), Naya Raipur, Nagpur and Navi Mumbai and the Ministry would like this to be expanded to other cities as well.