Directions: Read the passage and answer the questions that follow
Positive reinforcement is the presentation of an event (e.g.,food or money)that strengthens or increases the likelihood of a behavior. Punishment occurs when a response is followed by an event such as pain. You put your hand on a hot stove, burn yourself, and learn to stop doing that. Punishment is also called passive avoidance learning because the individual learns to avoid an outcome by being passive (e.g.,by not putting your hand on the stove).Try not to be confused by the term negative reinforcement. Negative reinforcement is a kind of reinforcement (not a punishment),and therefore, it increases the frequency of a behavior. It is “negative” because the reinforcement is the absence of something. For example, you learn to apply sunscreen to avoid skin cancer, and you learn to brush your teeth to avoid tooth decay. Negative reinforcement increases the behavior and decreases the undesirable outcome. Negative reinforcement is also known as escape learning if the response stops an outcome or avoidance learning if it prevents the outcome altogether .Far more researchers use the terms escape learning and avoidance learning than the potentially confusing term negative reinforcement. Pigeons in Skinner’s experiment had these response patterns to the different schedules. Just like people, the pigeons produced higher response rates when reinforcement was linked to the number of responses in a ratio schedule as opposed to the amount of time in an interval schedule. The pigeons also produced more consistent responding with an unpredictable or variable schedule as opposed to a predictable or fixed schedule.
Q.1 Based on the passage above about reinforcement, three of the following are examples of positive reinforcement. Which one is not?
a) When Asha’s teacher praises her in class for her oral report, Asha is embarrassed and vows never to act so smart in front of her friends again.
b) When Bhaskar changes the way he throws the javelin, he finds that it goes farther than it ever has before, and so he continues to use the new technique.
c) When Chitra tells a funny joke, his classmates laugh. Chitra soon becomes the class clown, telling jokes at every opportunity.
d) When Dinesh discovers that she can leave physical education class early by complaining about a stomach ache, she begins to get these “stomach aches” about once a week.
Solution. The option is wrong because, positive reinforcement means Positive reinforcement is the presentation of an event (e.g.,food or money)that strengthens or increases the likelihood of a behavior, here Asha is EMBARRASED and decides not to continue to show improvement unlike other options.
Q.2 Which of the following is an example of “negative reinforcement”?
a) Priya’s friends think she’s cool because she has the audacity to swear in class.
b) Oviya completes her English paper two days early so she won’t have it hanging over her head.
c) Tom’s teacher scolds him when she finds a copy of sports magazine hidden behind the textbook he is supposed to be reading.
d) Bindu gets the attention of all the pupil when she doesn’t responds to teachers in the class.
Solution. Negative reinforcement is a kind of reinforcement (not a punishment), and therefore, it increases the frequency of a behavior. It is “negative” because the reinforcement is the absence of something. Only Example statement B supports the explanation.
Q.3 Negative reinforcement brings about an increase of a behavior through the _____ of a stimulus
Solution. Negative reinforcement increases the frequency of a behavior. It is “negative” because the reinforcement is the absence of something.
Q.4 Consider the following statements.
1. Escape learning and avoidance learning are also known as negative reinforcement.
2. Negative reinforcement increases a behavior and decreases the undesirable outcome.
Choose the correct option
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) Both 1 and 2
d) Neither 1 or 2
Solution. Both the statements can be picked up in a different form from the passage.
Q.5 A family has 6 members. The average age of all the members is 18 years. The youngest member is 8 years old. What is the average age of the family during the birth of the youngest member?
a) 10 years
b) 14 years
c) 12 years
d) 15 years
Solution. The sum of ages of all the members = 18 X 6 = 108.
The sum of ages except the youngest member = 108 – 8 = 100
8 years before the sum of ages of 5 members = 100 – (8X5) = 100 – 40 = 60
The average age before 8 years = 60 / 5 = 12 years.
Q.6 Kiran sells a book to Tarun at a profit of 50%. Tarun sells it to Charan at a profit of 20%. If Charan paid Kiran Rs. 360, what was the original price at which Kiran bought the book?
a) Rs. 150
b) Rs. 180
c) Rs. 200
d) Rs. 290
Solution. Let the original price be x.
Tarun paid kiran 1.5x and charan paid Tarun 1.2 X (1.5x) = 1.8x It is given that Tarun paid Rs.360 = 1.8x
X = 360/1.8 = Rs.200
Directions for the following items: Read the following information carefully and answer the items that follow.
At a cricket stadium, five men (A,B,C,D, and E) and their five wives (G,H,I,J and K) occupy a row of 10 seats but not necessarily in the same order. The men occupy the odd numbered seats starting from left and each women sits next to their husband.
- D is J’s husband
- K is not at the right most end of the row and her husband is not at the left most end of the row.
- J sits next to B
Q.7 Who is B’s wife if,
i) K’s husband is sitting next to H
ii) J is sitting at 4th seat from the left
Select the correct answer from the codes given below:
Solution. From the initial information, it can be deduced that D – J – B sit together
K can sit only in 4th, 6th and 8th seat.
K’s husband is sitting next to H => H_K J is at 4th
Hence K can sit only at 8th.
B’s wife is H.
Q.8 Who is H’s husband if,
i) A is K’s husband and sits next to B’s wife.
ii) E sits in the 2nd seat from the right and next to H who is not his wife.
Select the correct answer from the codes given below:
Solution. E sits in the 2nd seat from the right and next to H who is not his wife. HE = 89
A is K’s husband and sits next to B’s wife.
But DJB sit together.
K cannot come at 4th place. So K has to come at 6th.
Only man left is C, which has to come at 7. Therefore C is H’s husband.