- Don’t use pellet guns indiscriminately: SC
- 50 % reservation in judicial services in Bihar
- Status of tribal development remains poor: Ministry report
- Antlers could end up in medicines
- Nepal rejects India’s ‘open sky’ offer
- India journeys from multilateral to bilateral
- China calls for ‘strategic balance’ in South Asia after Agni-V test-firing
- Afghanistan, India, and Trump
- Behind Pakistan’s CPEC offer
- Passport to reform
- Chronicle of a conflict foretold
- Excluded from financial inclusion
- Panel moots ‘handling’ levy on cash payments
- Aviation in 2016
- Sustaining transition to a digital economy
- The finance sector must sign the Paris pact
- Forget ratings agencies, focus on fundamentals
Front Page / NATIONAL
 Don’t use pellet guns indiscriminately: SC
The Supreme Court has sought an assurance from the Jammu and Kashmir government to avoid the “indiscriminate” use of pellet guns.
Court, hearing a petition by the J&K High Court Bar Association, expressed reservations about the use of pellet guns without “proper application of mind”. The lawyers’ body had moved the apex court as the High Court refused to stay their use
- The High Court on September 22 had rejected the plea for a ban on these guns as the Centre had constituted a committee for exploring alternatives. The Bar Association said the High Court should not have disposed of the petition, and instead, awaited the panel report
Exploring alternatives to pellet guns
A Bench led by the Chief Justice of India T.S. Thakur also sought the assistance of Attorney-General MukulRohatgi and asked him to submit the report of an expert committee exploring alternatives to pellet guns.
 50 % reservation in judicial services in Bihar
50 per cent reservation in all judicial services for aspirants belonging to the Extremely Backward Classes, Other Backward Classes, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.
What has happened?
The Bihar Cabinet has declared 50 per cent reservation in all judicial services for aspirants belonging to Extremely Backward Classes (EBCs), Other Backward classes (OBCs), Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs)
- The reservation will be in both Superior Judicial Services and Subordinate Judicial Services
- All aspirants belonging to EBCs will get 21 per cent reservation, OBCs will have 12 per cent reservations, Scheduled Castes will have 16 per cent reservation and Scheduled Tribes will be provided 1 per cent reservation in all judicial services of the State
- Horizontal reservation: In all categories there will be 35 per cent ‘horizontal reservation’ for women and 1 per cent reservation for disabled persons
Decision taken in the light of
In view of the Supreme Court order in the State of Bihar versus Dayanand Singh case (September 29, 2016), and after the approval of the Bihar Public Service Commission, the government has taken this decision
In October 2016, a Division Bench comprising Justice J. Chelameswar and Justice Abhay Manohar Sapre of the Supreme Court had asked the Bihar government and Patna High Court to complete the exercise of providing reservations to backward classes in State’s judicial services by January 1, 2017, and that the process of filling up vacancies in the judicial services by June 30, 2017.
Read More: Horizontal Reservation
 Status of tribal development remains poor: Ministry report
The tribal population In India lags behind other social groups on social parameters, such as child mortality, infant mortality, number of anaemic women, says the latest annual report of the Ministry of Tribal Affairs.
Article talks about the Latest annual report of the Ministry of Tribal Affairs
- Higher incidence of anaemia: Tribal population, with a vast majority engaged in agricultural labour, has a higher incidence of anaemia in women when compared to other social groups.
- Higher incidence of MMR and IMR:The community also registered the highest child mortality and infant mortality rates, when compared to other social groups
- Declining Gross enrolment ratio: GER among tribal students in the primary school level has declined from 113.2 in 2013-14 to 109.4 in 2015-16
- Alarming level of dropout rate: The dropout rate among tribal students has been at an alarming level
- Poverty: Overall poverty rates among the tribal population have fallen compared to previous years, they remain relatively poorer when weighed against other social groups
- Inadequate Health infrastructure: Health infrastructure has also been found wanting in tribal areas. At an all-India level, there is a shortfall of 6,796 Sub Centres, 1267 Primary Health Centres and 309 Community Health Centres in tribal areas as on March 31, 2015
Gaps in rehabilitation
Report exposes the gap in the rehabilitation of tribal community members displaced by various development projects.
Stats: Out of an estimated 85 lakh persons displaced due to development projects and natural calamities, only 21 lakh were shown to have been rehabilitated so far
View of social activists
Social activists allege that even the figure of 21 lakh is questionable as there is now ay to verify the data. Further, rehabilitation only happens on paper, and any compensation for displaced adivasi folks is siphoned off by others in their name
Vanbandhu Kalyan Yojana
In 2014, the Central government initiated the Vanbandhu Kalyan Yojana for the holistic development and welfare of tribal population on a pilot basis.
- Bare allocations: However, the Annual Report points out that the token budgetary provisions being made under the scheme to the tune of Rs.100.00 crore and Rs.200.00 crore for 2014-15 and 2015-16, respectively, is minuscule and barely sufficient to meet the purpose of the Scheme given that it intends to cover 27 States across the country
- The Ministry has emphasized that more funds be provided for the Scheme from the year 2016-17 onwards
 Antlers could end up in medicines
Union government’s approval to be sought for using deer antlers in Ayurveda drugs.
What has happened?
State Board for Wild Life (SBWL) has decided to approach the Centre for suitable amendments to the Wildlife Protection Act 1972 for using the antlers for medicinal purposes.
Clearance is being sought for Oushadhi, an Ayurvedic medicine manufacturing company owned by the Kerala government
Antlers are the extensions of the skull of the deer. All the three deer varieties found in Kerala, including spotted deer, sambar, and barking deer, shed their antlers annually, said a wildlife specialist
The original proposal floated few years ago was to collect the antlers annually shed by the ungulates after the breeding season
Some fear that if amendments are passed it would lead to indiscriminate hunting for the antlers
Definition of antler as per Wildlife Protection Act
The Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972, has included antler in the definition of wildlife trophy. A wildlife trophy is defined as the “whole or any part of any captive animal or wild animal”.
- Permission required: Section 39 of the Act also states that “no person shall, without the previous permission in writing of the Chief Wildlife Warden or the authorised officer acquire or keep in his possession, custody or control or transfer to any person, whether by way of gift, sale or otherwise or destroy or damage such property.”Government Wildlife and wildlife trophies are considered as owned by the government
- Penal provisions:The Act also prescribes imprisonment up to three years and fine of RS. 25,000 for offences involving wildlife trophies.
 Nepal rejects India’s ‘open sky’ offer
Nepal has rejected India’s ‘open sky’ offer to allow unlimited flights between the two countries.
What is an Open Sky offer?
India had made an offer to allow unlimited flights between the two countries at a meeting held here on December 20
- Countries sign air services agreements (ASAs) through bilateral negotiations to decide the number of flights airlines can fly. Under the ‘open-sky’ agreement, there is no restriction on flights or seats.
The open sky offer can be understood in the terms of India’s strategy to counter Chinese engagement with Nepal on the road, railways and port connectivity.
- Moreover, the issue of increased air service and additional routes was part of the joint statement issued during the visit of Nepalese PM to India
- Also, under the National Civil Aviation Policy, approved by the Union Cabinet earlier this year, India intends to enter into ‘open-sky’ agreements with SAARC countries and with those beyond the 5,000-km radius from Delhi
Nepal said it was not yet ready for the agreement
View of Nepal’s ambassador to India
Nepal is building a major international airport at Bhairwaha, near the Uttar Pradesh border, and the airport at Pokhara will soon be brought to international standards. Therefore, we believe India and Nepal should give each more access to the other’s skies and move with the times
Airlines from India and Nepal are now allowed to operate 30,000 seats from each side
India and Nepal have signed a memorandum of understanding to set up a joint technical committee to examine Nepal’s request for developing new air routes and air entry points at Janakpur, Bhairahawa and Nepalgunj
Open skies with other countries
India has already signed an agreement with Sri Lanka, Jamaica, Guyana, Czech Republic, Finland and Spain to allow airlines to operate unlimited flights to Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Hyderabad and Bengaluru
- Among SAARC countries, India doesn’t have any ‘open sky’ agreement with Pakistan, Nepal and Afghanistan. It allows unlimited flights from Bangladesh and Maldives at 18 domestic airports, from Sri Lanka at 23 airports, and from Bhutan at all its airports.
 India journeys from multilateral to bilateral
From the United Nations (U.N.), to the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM), to the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) to BRICS, SAARC, SCO and others, the government seemed to make limited headway.
Give it a go-through once.
 China calls for ‘strategic balance’ in South Asia after Agni-V test-firing
Without referring to Pakistan, China on Tuesday advocated “preserving the strategic balance and stability in South Asia,” after India successfully test-fired Agni-V ballistic missile.
Give it a go-through once.
 Afghanistan, India, and Trump
Given his limited choices in stabilizing Afghanistan, which include supporting a national election,U.S. President-elect Donald Trump will find India to be a reliable and trusted partner in this process.
Operation Enduring Freedom
- The U.S. government used the term “Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan” to officially describe the War in Afghanistan, from the period between October 2001 and December 2014.It ended on 28th Dec 2014.
Operation Resolute Support
- Resolute Support or Operation Resolute Support is a NATO-led training, advisory, assistance, and counter-terror mission consisting of over 13,000 troops in the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, which began on January 1, 2015.It is a follow-on mission to the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) which was completed on December 28, 2014.
International Security Assistance Force (ISAF)
The International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) was a NATO-led security mission in Afghanistan, established by the United Nations Security Council in December 2001 by Resolution 1386, as envisaged by the Bonn Agreement
- Its main purpose was to train the Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF) and assist Afghanistan in rebuilding key government institutions, but was also engaged in the 2001–present war with the Taliban insurgency
Amount spent in Afghanistan by USA
The U.S. alone has spent more than $800 billion in Afghanistan, of which $115 billion has been spent on reconstruction; more than the inflation adjusted expenditure under the Marshall Plan for rebuilding Europe after World War II at $105 billion!
At the NATO summit in Warsaw earlier in 2016, it was agreed to maintain the current international troop presence till 2020 while providing annual financial support of $4.5 billion for the Afghan security forces.
Author states that situation in Afghanistan is unlikely to improve as the,
- Number of casualties have risen to 30000 from 21000 in 2014
A ray of hope
But all hope is not lost as situation is improving in some sectors
- Life expectancy has gone up from 40 years in 2002 to 62 years today
- Increase in school-going children from 9 lakh to 8 million
- Literacy rate has gone up from 12 per cent to 34 per cent in 15 years
With a median age of 18 years, Afghanistan has one of the youngest populations with 60 per cent of the population below 21 years of age.
Different political approaches
Hamid Karzai: His approach constituted talking with Pakistan and simultaneous recognition of India as an old friend but he realised soon enough that Pakistan is not serious to resolve issue with Afghanistan and tried unsuccessfully to open up communication channels with Quetta Shura (The Afghan Taliban)
MR Ghani: Karzai’s successor thought that unless Pakistan is brought on board, peace will always remain a far-cry, gave in to its demand and diminished its relationship with India. A Quadrilateral Coordination Group (QCG) was formed consisting of Afghanistan, China, Pakistan and US but he too realised that peace will remain elusive if Pakistan is allowed to run the show.
Author clearly states that given a porous border with Afghanistan with tribal linkages cutting across the Durand Line, Pakistan’s legitimate interests can be understood as also the fact that it is critical to any political reconciliation in Afghanistan
- However, what Pakistan has been seeking is to exercise a veto over Kabul’s relations with Delhi which the Afghans are unwilling to concede
- Looking at Afghanistan through an Indian prism: Author points out that Pakistan views its relations with Afghanistan through the India prism and since relations with India are unlikely to normalize in the foreseeable future, the only way out for Pakistan to play a constructive role in Afghanistan is to accept the idea of Afghan sovereignty and autonomy and refrain from making it a zone of India-Pakistan rivalry.
Challenge for Kabul
Author states that the challenge for Kabul is it has to engage in multiple reconciliation processes with the Taliban and with the Pakistani army.
What hardline Taliban want?
The hardline Taliban represented by the Haqqani network is determined to continue the fight militarily
What moderate Taliban wants?
The moderates in Taliban want that all foreign forces must exit Afghanistan before talks begin. If this happens, the fragile government in Kabul will collapse.
The India factor
India has had the most effective economic cooperation programme, having spent more than $2 billion and committed another billion dollars earlier this year
- Afghan-India relations are now developing military dimension with initiatives like training of Afghan army personnel in India, Donation of Helicopters to Afghan army etc.
Options for Trump
Author states that President elect Trump has little choice in the matter.
- A complete withdrawal is out of question
- His challenge will be to change the calculus (methods) of the Pakistani establishment, increase capabilities of the Afghan security forces to inflict attrition on the insurgents, and, in 2019, support an election in Afghanistan that brings about a more cohesive government
- In all this, he will find the Indian government to be a reliable and trusted partner
 Behind Pakistan’s CPEC offer
India should shun its “enmity” with Pakistan and join the $46 billion China-Pakistan Economic Corridor project. The Chinese foreign ministry has called the offer a “goodwill gesture”
On 20th December 2016,Lieutenant General AamirRiaz, Commander of the Southern Command which is based in Quetta, invited India to join the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, saying New Delhi should “shun enmity” with Islamabad and jointly reap the benefit of the multi-billion dollar project
China Pakistan Economic Corridor
The $46 billion CPEC aims to connect China’s western parts with the Arabian Sea through Balochistan’s strategic Gwadar port
India’s view on CPEC
India has no dialogue with Pakistan at present, and has opposed the project, bilaterally with China “at the highest level” as well as at the UN
Author points out as to how the geopolitical conditions are changing,
- Iran wants Gwadar to be a “sister” port to Chabahar
- Turkmenistan and other Central Asian republics have shown interest in the warm-water port that will be a nodal point for goods through Pakistan to the Chinese city of Kashgar
- Further north, despite its problems on terror from Pakistan, Afghanistan is becoming a nodal point for China’s connectivity projects to Iran
- The meeting among Russian, Chinese and Pakistani officials on Afghanistan
- Russian engagement with the Taliban
What India should do now?
As per author, India should see how things shape up and react accordingly. In the light of changing geopolitical scenario shaped up by economic cooperation and perceived economic benefits, alignments and loyalties are bound to shift. India should not ignore or neglect OBOR and other projects linked to it like CPEC.
Read More: Pak General’s invitation
 Passport to reform
The progressive changes introduced by the Centre to the rules governing grant of passports were long overdue.
What has happened?
In a move to speed up and simplify the passport delivery process, the government on 23rd Dec announced a series of steps that would help single mothers, orphaned children, and sadhus obtain passports with ease.
- The new rules for online application require the applicant to provide the name of father or mother or legal guardian
Benefit: This would enable single parents to apply for passports for their children and facilitate issue of passports where the name of either the father or the mother is not required to be printed at the request of the applicant
- Faster processing for married applicants as they can apply without attaching marriage certificate
- No need for the name of the spouse: The passport application form does not require the application to provide the name of her/his spouse in case of separated or divorced persons. Such applicants would not be required to provide even the Divorce Decree
- Holy men: Holy men can now apply for a passport with the name of their spiritual guru, instead of biological parents. However, they would have to provide a document such as voter ID, which records the name of the guru against the column for parent’s name
- Self-declaration will suffice: The obsolete concept of getting documents attested by notaries or magistrates has also been done away with, and self-declarations on plain paper would now be accepted
- A birth certificate is no more the main proof of date of birth, and other official documents, including Aadhaar number and PAN card, which contain the date, can be utilised
- In the case of orphaned children, actual proof for date of birth has been dispensed with and a declaration from the head of a child care home or orphanage confirming the date is enough
- Adopted and surrogate children can be issued passports even in the absence of the relevant documents, based on a declaration on plain paper.
Changes have been introduced in the recommendations of an inter-ministerial committee comprising officials of the Ministries of External Affairs and Women and Child Development
Issues with previous rules
Harassment of women: Previous rules often lead to harassment of women passport applicants especially those who were either separated or divorced
- Even something as routine as renewing a passport without any change of name or detail or getting a passport in the name of a child was a laborious process, as passport officials insisted on either the father’s consent or demanded a divorce decree
 Chronicle of a conflict foretold
In Manipur, everyone will have to agree to a shared homeland if the crisis is to be solved.
Article gives a brief commentary about Manipur situation.
Manipur issue has been covered in detail in earlier briefs.
Give it a go through once
 Excluded from financial inclusion
Despite the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) repeatedly issuing circulars to all scheduled commercial banks across the country to provide banking facilities to customers with disabilities at a par with non-disabled people, the majority of disabled people continue to be inconvenienced by the banks
Issue: Difficulties faced by Persons with Disabilities (PWD) in accessing banking facilities
Hurdles faced by disabled people
- Difficulty in signing documents: Many disabled people, especially in rural India, find it difficult to sign bank documents
- Denial of bank services: They are denied ATM cards, cheque books and Internet banking
- Cannot open independent accounts: The majority of commercial banks have archaic rules in their statute books which debar people with disabilities from opening independent accounts
- Compelled to produce witnesses: Persons with disabilities are compelled to produce witnesses every time they visit banks to make online transactions through real-time gross settlement and national electronic funds transfer
Denial of banking services
Banking Industry prioritizes those it considers suitable for the banks’ business, be it in terms of customer needs, interest in certain product features, or customer profitability. Disabled persons are excluded.
Problems faced by visually impaired
- Inaccessible bank sites: There is a common perception among bank officials that disabled people do not require banking products and services. This is perhaps why most bank websites are inaccessible. The majority of them offer graphical ‘captcha’ to enable customers to proceed on these sites. These make it impossible for a fully blind person to access available services
- In many rural areas, if a visually impaired person or a person with low vision walks into a bank to open an account, most banks don’t comply. Bank officials often insist that the person should open a joint bank account with a person with sight, or open an account with no ATM card/cheque book facility or both
Problems faced by hearing impaired
If a person who is deaf visits a bank for availing the benefits of a scheme or service, the branch more often than not lacks the manpower to understand or interpret sign language
People with psycho-social abilities
People with psycho-social disabilities are the worst hit as they require a guardian to sign a contract on their behalf
Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana (PMJDY)
Under PMJDY, a majority of banks refrain from offering insurance to people with disabilities.
Impact of Demonetization
The demonetisation move has further aggravated the problem
- Absence of Ramps: There are long queues outside ATMs and banks, and disabled persons find it difficult to avail of cash and services in such an environment, especially in rural areas. Despite the RBI stating that “banks have to take necessary steps to provide all existing ATMs/future ATMs with ramps so that wheel chair users/persons with disabilities can easily access them”, most ATMs remain inaccessible. In the current environment, the government has proposed that there should be separate queues for persons with disabilities and for senior citizens, but the reality is starkly different.
Punitive action: Author suggests that the RBI and the government need to take punitive action against those errant officials and banks that contravene the RBI’s guidelines for providing banking facilities to disabled people.
Author concludes by stating that we must uphold the spirit of Article 41 of the Constitution (Right to public assistance for the disabled).
 Panel moots ‘handling’ levy on cash payments
It suggested a cut in the threshold for quoting PAN numbers for cash transactions from 50,000/- and 200000/-
Committee on digital payments (Watal Committee)
The committee has advised finance ministry that,
- Imposing a levy: Union Budget 2017-18 should allow merchants as well as government departments to levy a handling charge for cash payments above a certain limit
- A reduction in the mandatory threshold for quoting PAN card numbers for cash transactions from Rs. 50,000 and Rs. 2,00,000, applicable in different cases currently
- Aadhaar be used as an alternate for KYC for people who don’t have a PAN
- Creating parity: To create parity between cash and digital payments, the panel proposed that eKYC requirements in digital payments should be in consonance with KYC norms for transacting in cash. Transactions which are permitted in cash without KYC should also be permitted on prepaid wallets without KYC
- Tax payment by cards and wallets: Allow tax payments by debit cards and e-wallets, against the current option of net banking only
- Make Aadhaar numbers compulsory in Income Tax returns, although the committee has stressed such an amendment must only be made after seeking the Attorney General’s opinion. Income tax payers already have PAN cards
- When government acts as a merchant, it should bear the cost of electronic payments and not pass them on to consumers
- Low value transactions: Digital payments for low value transactions, such as parking charges, toll charges or health services at government hospitals and health centres, also need to be promoted as they affect the daily lives of the people
- Adoption of digital payments for all government transactions: Committee has also proposed that utility bills and payments to government above a certain threshold be made only in digital mode
- Withdraw convenience charges: Convenience or service charge levied by utility service providers, petrol pumps, railways, airlines on electronic payments should be withdrawn
- Reduction in Custom and Excise duties: Customs and excise duties on import of equipment which form a part of retail payment system infrastructure must be cut in the Budget. The list includes micro ATMs used by business correspondents; fingerprint readers and biometric readers either as spare parts or as integrated electronic data capture machines and point- of-sale (PoS) terminals
Benefits of going less-cash
Report stated that transitioning to an electronic platform for government payments itself could save approximately Rs. 100,000 crore annually, with the cost of the transition being estimated at Rs. 60,000 to Rs. 70,000 crore
 Aviation in 2016
Flight airborne; ATF price, congestion cloud outlook: India’s air traffic grew at a significantly higher rate.
Give the article a go-through once.
 Sustaining transition to a digital economy
Don’t assume that the recent surge in online transactions is an irreversible move towards a digital economy
A massive increase in digital transactions
In the first few paragraphs author points at the recent surge in the digital transactions in lieu of the demonetization move by the government, the announcement that the taken away currency will not be fully reduced and the subsequent reduction in charges on digital payment and transfers.
We should not assume that the current surge indicates a sustained and irreversible movement towards the embrace of a digital economy
- Author points at another initiative with similar vision with respect to financial inclusion ie Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana (PMJDY). No doubt around 240 million bank accounts were opened but most of them remain dormantdespite added incentives. Creative use of such accounts to launder unaccounted money is now being reported.
- Cash usage still prevails: Electronic wallets might be predominantly used to receive online payments, only to be immediately withdrawn and used over the counter
- Kenya’s struggle: Kenya, despite being the epicentre of the digital payments revolution, is still struggling with high over-the-counter cash usage.
- Top-Down approach: Author points out that the problem with most government drives is the top-down approach of issuing diktats and a bureaucracy which does not have the slightest understanding of ground realities. This also is the biggest bottleneck in fast-forwarding to Digital India.
- Dependence on externalities: Success of the digital ecosystem is dependent upon several externalities. Such externalities increase the inconvenience associated with digital transactions. Externalities include,
- Successful authentication of user information
- Availability of mobile or Internet connectivity
- Existence of payment and acceptance infrastructure
Inconvenience: For instance, most digital transactions in India can only be undertaken through smartphones. Reportedly, only about 17% of Indians own a smartphone. This is the lowest among BRICS (Brazil-Russia-India-China-South Africa) economies, wherein China leads with 58% smartphone penetration. Even the global median is much higher than India’s, at around 43%.
- Complicated process: The process of making digital payments through feature phones involves entering complicated codes, which is not an easy task even for educated persons like me
- Network unavailability:Even when a smartphone is available, smooth availability of mobile or Internet network is not certain. Several pockets in the country do not have uninterrupted access to a mobile network.
Security risks: Availability of all essential prerequisites for digital transactions does not take away the security risks inherent in such transactions.
- Card info compromised: Not so long ago, the largest ever compromise of sensitive debit card information of close to three million consumers was reported in India, requiring several banks to reissue such cards.
- Hacking threats:Reportedly, confidential data pertaining to servers, including encryption keys of service providers such as payments system operators, banks and wallet issuers, could potentially be accessed by hackers, raising the possibility of fraudulent instructions/transactions. Mobile payments applications are not using hardware-level security which can make online transactions more secure. One can imagine the level of security standards employed by local service providers when global giants like Yahoo have suffered data breaches in over one billion email accounts.
Weak regulatory framework
Author states that there is an urgent need to set up a strong cybersecurity and data protection framework in India. The regulatory attitude is archaic, with a requirement to report security breaches on a quarterly basis, and limited attention on monitoring compliance with international security standards.
- Negligible user awareness: User awareness about digital security is also negligible. Often, consumers are complacent about protecting their personal information online. Lack of awareness results in consumers relying on third parties to undertake digital transactions. Such intermediaries could extract unfair charges for their assistance and advice.
Opportunity in the crisis
Author states that The National Association of Software and Services Companies (Nasscom) suggests India aspires to build a cyber-security product and services industry of $35 billion by 2025, and generate a skilled workforce of one million in the security sector.
- Bottom-up approach: Such products and services need to be designed through a bottom-up approach, i.e. they should be able to deal with local problems and provide customized user-centric comprehensible solutions, rather than being copied from other jurisdictions.
- Consumer participation:Consumers also need to be involved in the review of legislative and regulatory framework around digital security to ensure their interest is kept at the core. Their awareness and capacity will be crucial to sustaining the transition towards the digital economy.
 The finance sector must sign the Paris pact
Without increased climate funding to the global South, the poor will end up underwriting a green future for a privileged few.
Give this article a go through once.
 Forget ratings agencies, focus on fundamentals
While India has made significant progress, there is still plenty of scope for improvement.
Give it a go-through once.