Download : UPSC Mains 2016 POLITICAL SCIENCE Optional Paper -2

Download the POLITICAL SCIENCE Optional Paper -2 Question Paper from the link below:


Section A

 Q.1) Answer the following Questions in about 150 words each:

a) Critically examine the Marxist aspect of political economy approach to the study of comparative politics.

b) Comment on the decline of political parties and examine whether new social movements shall be alternative strategy for establishing link between government and society.

c) Discuss the impact of globalization on the internal functioning of the state.

d) Critically examine the functional and system approaches to the study of international relations.

e) “A combination of internal pressures (Ethinic and regional forces) and external threats (EU, UN, TNC, Global market, etc.) has produced what is commonly referred to as a ‘crisis of the nation-state’.”

Q.2) Why does global human security need to be emphasized along with economic security? Explain with examples.

b) Do you endorse that the United Nations needs major changes in its structures and functioning? Suggest the changes for efficient improvements.

c) Discuss the evolution of non-proliferation of nuclear weapons in the post-Cold War Period.

Q.3)  a) “The IMF, World Bank, G-7, GATT and other structures are designed to serve the interests of TNCs, Banks and investment firms in a ‘’New Imperial age’.” Substantiate with examples of governance of new world order.

b) Examine in brief the rise and fall of the Cold War.

c) How does the regionalism shape the world politics? Explain with examples.

Q.4) a) Explain the instruments and methods devised for the promotion of national interest.

b) “The notion of balance of power is notoriously full of confusion.” In the light of this quotation, do you think that the concept of balance of power is relevant?

c) Do interest groups help to promote democracy or to undermine it? Give your opinion.


Q.5) Answer the following questions in about 150 words each:

a) Which determinant factors play an important role in making India’s foreign policy? Illustrate with examples.

b) Comment on India’s contribution to Non-Alignment Movement and its contemporary relevance.

c) Illustrate the main causes of tension between India and China. Suggest the possibilities of improving relationship.

d) Critically analyze India’s nuclear policy.

e) Sometimes we visualize that SAARC’s efforts come to halt because of various impediments to regional cooperation.” Elaborate with reasonable examples of impediments.

Q.6) Explain Britain’s ouster from EU and bring out its consequences on world economy in general and India in particular.

b) Comment on India’s growing relationship with USA in the background of constrained relations between India and China.

c) Critically analyze China’s role in international politics against India’s demand for permanent seat in UN Security council.

Q.7) a) Examine the main problems and challenges involved in looking after environmental concerns in world politics.

b) Explain the concept of the North-South divide and suggest how structural inequalities between the high wage, high investment industrial North and low wage, low investment predomintly rural South can be reduced.

c) Discuss the positive and negative impacts of Soviet Union’s disintegration on developing nations.

Q.8) a) Explain the socio-economic impacts of arms race and identify the obstacles in the way of disarmament.

b) What are the hope and aspirations of ‘Look East Policy’ of India? Explain.

c) Discuss the shift of India’s foreign policy towards Pakistan in light of Pathankot incident.


Download : UPSC Mains 2016 English and Hindi Compulsory Papers

Find the UPSC Mains 2016 English and Hindi Compulsory Question Papers below:

Download the ENGLISH – Compulsory – UPSC Mains 2016 here.

Download the HINDI – Compulsory – UPSC Mains 2016 here.


Download : UPSC Mains 2016 POLITICAL SCIENCE Paper -1

Political Science Optional Paper-1 is over.

Download the Question Paper from the link below:


Section ‘A’

Q.1) Comment on the following in about 150 words each:
प्रत्येक लगभग 150 शब्दों में निम्नलिखित पर टिप्पणी:

  1. a) “How would and my fellow human beings behave if we were to find ourselves in a state of nature, and what does this behavior tell us about our innate pre-dispositions?” (Thomas Hobbes)

क) “कैसे होगा और यदि हम प्रकृति के एक राज्य में अपने आप को खोजने के लिए किए गए मेरे साथी मनुष्यों के व्यवहार करते हैं, और क्या इस व्यवहार हमें हमारी सहज पूर्व स्वभाव के बारे में बताओ?” (थॉमस होब्स)

  1. b) The Post-Behavioural Approach.

ख) पोस्ट-व्यवहार दृष्टिकोण।

  1. c) Affirmative Action.

ग) सकारात्मक कार्रवाई।

  1. d) Dr. B.R. Ambedkar’s idea of state socialism.

घ) डॉ बी.आर. राज्य समाजवाद के अम्बेडकर के विचार।

  1. e) Gramsci’s concept of Hegemony

ई) नायकत्व की ग्राम्शी की अवधारणा

Q.2) a) “The Political ideology of Globalization is Neo-Liberalism.” Comment.

क) टिप्पणी “वैश्वीकरण की राजनीतिक विचारधारा नव-उदारवाद है।”।

  1. b) Discuss Feminist Theory of the State.

ख) राज्य की नारीवादी सिद्धांत पर चर्चा।

  1. c) Critically examine John Rawl’s Argument for democratic equality.

ग) समीक्षकों लोकतांत्रिक समानता के लिए जॉन राल्स के तर्क की जांच।

Q.3) a)  Discuss Shri Aurobinod’s  views on Culture Nationalism.

क) संस्कृति राष्ट्रवाद पर श्री Aurobinod के विचारों पर चर्चा करें ..

  1. b) Explain Marx’s understanding of Human Essence  and Alienation.

ख) मानव सार और अलगाव की मार्क्स की समझ को समझाओ।

  1. c) “ The implementation of human rights is regarded as a matter of changing the conduct of States. ” Comment.

ग) “मानव अधिकारों के कार्यान्वयन राज्य अमेरिका के आचरण को बदलने की बात के रूप में माना जाता है। ” टिप्पणी।

Q.4) Discuss Hannah Arendt’s analysis of the role of ideology in modern totalitarian regimes.

चर्चा आधुनिक अधिनायकवादी शासन में विचारधारा की भूमिका की हन्ना Arendt का विश्लेषण।

b) Explicate the features of Representative Democracy.

ख) प्रतिनिधि लोकतंत्र की सुविधाओं के बयान।

c) Examine Gandhi’s critique of ‘Modernisations’.

ग) ‘आधुनिकीकरण’ की गांधी की आलोचना की जांच करना।


Section ‘B’

Q.5) Comment on the following in about 150 words Each:

प्रत्येक लगभग 150 शब्दों में निम्नलिखित पर टिप्पणी:

a) Critically examine the Radical Humanist perspective on Indian National Movement.

क) समीक्षकों भारतीय राष्ट्रीय आंदोलन पर कट्टरपंथी मानवतावादी परिप्रेक्ष्य जांच करते हैं।

b) Cultural and Regional differences are the enduring bases on which politics is played out in India.

ख) सांस्कृतिक और क्षेत्रीय मतभेद है जिस पर राजनीति भारत में खेला जाता है स्थायी कुर्सियां हैं।

c) ‘Article 368 does not enable Parliament to alter the basic structure or framework of the Constitution’.

ग) ‘अनुच्छेद 368 बुनियादी संरचना या संविधान के ढांचे को बदलने के लिए संसद सक्षम नहीं है’।

d) The Purpose of the 42nd Constitutional Amendment was to make the economic and social democracy explicitly visible.

घ) 42 वें संविधान संशोधन का विषय आर्थिक और सामाजिक लोकतंत्र को स्पष्ट रूप से दिखाई बनाने के लिए किया गया था।

e) The philosophy and administration of the distribution of powers between Centre and state is required to be re-assessed.

ई) दर्शन और केंद्र और राज्य के बीच शक्तियों के वितरण के प्रशासन को फिर से मूल्यांकन किया जाना आवश्यक है।

Q.6) a) Critically examine the politics of Economic growth in India.

क) समीक्षकों भारत में आर्थिक विकास की राजनीति की जांच।

  1. b) Comment on the emergence of Backward classes in the Indian politics.

ख) भारतीय राजनीति में पिछड़े वर्गों के उद्भव पर टिप्पणी करें।

c) Discuss the pattern of Political Parties from one dominant party system to coalition politics in national politics.

ग) राष्ट्रीय राजनीति में गठबंधन की राजनीति के लिए एक प्रमुख पार्टी सिस्टम से राजनीतिक दलों की तर्ज पर चर्चा करें।

Q.7) a)  Land reforms have failed in the eradication of rural poverty. Comment.

क) भूमि सुधारों ग्रामीण गरीबी उन्मूलन में विफल रहे हैं। टिप्पणी।

7.b) Critically examine the role of Governor in recent times.

ख) गंभीर रूप से हाल के दिनों में राज्यपाल की भूमिका की जांच।

7.c) Discuss the Right to information and underline challenges being posed before it.

ग) सूचना के अधिकार पर चर्चा करें और रेखांकित चुनौतियों में यह पहले के समक्ष रखी जा रही है।

Q.8) a) The goal of Good governance will be achieved only by strengthening the grass root level democracy.

क) सुशासन का लक्ष्य केवल जमीनी स्तर पर लोकतंत्र को मजबूत बनाने के द्वारा प्राप्त किया जाएगा।

b) Examine the objective and role of the National  Human Rights Commission.

ख) उद्देश्य और राष्ट्रीय मानवाधिकार आयोग की भूमिका की जांच।

c) Critical Examine the provisions made in the Constitution for the protection of  Environment.

ग) गंभीर पर्यावरण की सुरक्षा के लिए संविधान में किए गए प्रावधानों का परीक्षण करें।


Download : UPSC Mains 2016 Geography Paper -1

Geography Optional Paper-1 is over.

Download the Question Paper from the link below:

CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD Geography Question Paper -1



Q.1) Answer the following in about 150 words each:

प्रत्येक लगभग 150 शब्दों में निम्नलिखित उत्तर:

a) Describe the “Basket of eggs topography”.

क) “अंडे स्थलाकृति की टोकरी” का वर्णन करें।

b) Differentiate between insulation and temperature and explain anomalous temperature.

ख) इन्सुलेशन और तापमान के बीच अंतर और विषम तापमान समझाओ।

c) Discuss Maritime Zones.

ग) समुद्री क्षेत्र पर चर्चा करें।

d) Bring out the ecological significance of Tropical Rainforest Biome.

घ) उष्णकटिबंधीय वर्षा वन बायोम के पारिस्थितिक महत्व बाहर ले आओ।

e) Explain the hydro-meteorological hazards in the Himalayas.

ई) हिमालय में जल-मौसम के खतरों के बारे में बताएं।

Q.2) a) “In explaining the concept of ‘Pediplanation’, King combined the ideas of Davis, Penck and Wood with his own.” Elaborate.

क) ” Pediplanation ‘की अवधारणा समझाने में, राजा डेविस, पेंक और अपने ही साथ लकड़ी। के विचारों संयुक्त “प्रकाश डालेंगे।

b) Compare the origin and weather conditions associated with the tropical and temperate cyclones.

ख) उष्णकटिबंधीय और शीतोष्ण चक्रवात के साथ जुड़े मूल और मौसम की स्थिति की तुलना करें।

c) Give a reasoned account on how the impact of Global Warming differs from one part of the Earth to the other.

ग) कैसे ग्लोबल वार्मिंग के प्रभाव पृथ्वी के एक भाग से दूसरे से अलग है पर एक तर्क खाते दे।

Q.3) a) Describe th regional pattern of Life Expectancy in the world and bring out the challenges faced by developing  countries due to increasing life expectancy.

क) दुनिया में जीवन प्रत्याशा के वें क्षेत्रीय पैटर्न का वर्णन और बढ़ती जीवन प्रत्याशा के कारण चुनौतियों विकासशील देशों द्वारा सामना बाहर लाने के लिए।

b) Discuss the relevance of ‘Stop and Go Determinism’ in the present day context.

ख) वर्तमान दिन के संदर्भ में ‘बंद करो और जाओ नियतत्ववाद’ की प्रासंगिकता पर चर्चा करें।

c) Define and differentiate between boundaries and frontiers. Describe the geometrical boundaries with suitable examples.

ग) को परिभाषित करने और सीमाओं और सीमाओं के बीच अंतर। उपयुक्त उदाहरण के साथ ज्यामितीय सीमाओं का वर्णन करें।

Q.4) a) Give a critical account of Losch’s theory of central places.

क) केंद्रीय स्थानों के Losch के सिद्धांत का एक महत्वपूर्ण खाते दे।

b) “Linkages between resource-endowed regions and resource-utilizing regions determine the pattern of international trade.” Elaborate with suitable examples

“संसाधन संपन्न क्षेत्रों और संसाधन के उपयोग के क्षेत्रों के बीच संबंधों को अंतरराष्ट्रीय व्यापार के पैटर्न का निर्धारण।” उपयुक्त उदाहरण के साथ प्रकाश डालेंगे

c) In what ways can geographers contribute towards optimal land use planning in a region?

ग) किन तरीकों से भूगोल एक क्षेत्र में इष्टतम भूमि उपयोग की योजना बना की दिशा में योगदान कर सकते हैं?



Q.5)  Answer the following in about 150 words each:

प्रत्येक लगभग 150 शब्दों में निम्नलिखित उत्तर:

a) “Areal differentiation forms the core theme in Geography.” Explain.

क) “Areal भेदभाव रूपों भूगोल में कोर विषय है।” समझाओ।

b) Explain ‘Isodapane’.

ख) ‘Isodapane’ समझाओ।

c) Discuss the major characteristics of ‘CBD’.

ग) ‘सीबीडी’ की प्रमुख विशेषताओं पर चर्चा करें।

d) Elaborate the idea of ‘Compage’.

घ) ‘Compage’ के विचार प्रकाश डालेंगे

e) Discuss the application of Gravity model in Geographical studies.

ई) भौगोलिक अध्ययन में गुरुत्वाकर्षण मॉडल के आवेदन पर चर्चा करें।

Q.6) a) Trace the origin and progress of Quantitative Revolution in Geography and bring out its merits and demerits.

क) मूल और भूगोल में मात्रात्मक क्रांति की प्रगति का पता लगाने और अपने गुण और दोष से बाहर लाने के लिए।

b) Discuss the role of site in determining the types and patterns of rural settlements.

ख) प्रकार और ग्रामीण बस्तियों के पैटर्न को निर्धारित करने में साइट की भूमिका पर चर्चा करें।

c) What is a ‘region’? Describe ‘Thiessen’ polygon method of regional delimitation.

ग) एक ‘क्षेत्र’ क्या है? क्षेत्रीय परिसीमन के ‘Thiessen’ बहुभुज विधि का वर्णन।

Q.7) a) Discuss the significance of World  Climate Research Programme (WCRP) and its core projects in the understanding of climatic change.

क) जलवायु परिवर्तन की समझ में विश्व जलवायु अनुसंधान कार्यक्रम (WCRP) और उसके मुख्य परियोजनाओं के महत्व पर चर्चा करें।

b) “The relationship between the winds and the currents is best seen in the Indian Ocean.” Justify.

ख) “हवाओं और धाराओं के बीच के रिश्ते को सबसे अच्छा हिंद महासागर में देखा जाता है।” औचित्य।

c) Write a critical note on the tendency of “use and throw” in the context of economic status and environment.

ग) “का उपयोग करें और फेंक” आर्थिक स्थिति और पर्यावरण के संदर्भ में की प्रवृत्ति पर एक महत्वपूर्ण टिप्पणी लिखें।

Q.8) a) Bring out the various ecological problems associated with the exploitation and use of oceans and their resources.

क) शोषण और महासागरों और अपने संसाधनों के इस्तेमाल से जुड़े विभिन्न पारिस्थितिक समस्याओं को ले आओ।

b) “Geological structure has a dominant control on landforms and is reflected on them.” Discuss.

ख) “भूवैज्ञानिक संरचना भू आकृतियों पर एक प्रमुख नियंत्रण नहीं है और उन पर दिखाई देता है।” पर चर्चा करें।

c) Describe New begins scheme of Floristic regions of the world and explain the Mediterranean Floristic Region.

ग) का वर्णन न्यू शुरू होता है दुनिया की फ्लोरिस्टिक क्षेत्रों की योजना और भूमध्य फ्लोरिस्टिक क्षेत्र समझाओ।



Download : UPSC Mains 2016 SOCIOLOGY Paper -1

Download the SOCIOLOGY optional Question Paper from the link below:



Q.1) Write short answers of the following questions in about 150 words each:

a) “Sociology is pre-eminently study of modern societies.” Discuss

b) ‘ What is ‘Value-free sociology’? Clarify.

c) Analyze the importance of qualitative method in social research.

d) Evaluate Marx’s ideas on mode of production.

e) “Vertical mobility brings structural change even in a closed social system”.


Q.2)  a) Elucidate the basic premises of Davis’ structural-punctual-functional theory of social stratification. How far is it relevant in understanding contemporary Indian Society?

b) Describe the functional prerequisites of social system as given by Talcott Parsons. Examine in the context of a university as a social system.

c) Is sociology common sense? Give reasons in support of your argument.             



Q.3)  a) Analyze the manifest and latent functions of ‘security of the tenure of  bureaucrats in the light of Merton’s theory.

b) Describe the basic postulates of scientific How far are these followed in sociological       research?

c) “Hypothesis is a statement of the relationship between two or more variables”. Elucidate by giving example of poverty and illiteracy.


Q.4) a) Examine Max Weber’s method of maintaining objectivity in social research

b) “Participant observation is the most effective tool for collecting facts.” Comment.

c) Discuss the relationship between poverty and social exclusion.



Q.5)  Write Short answers of the following questions in about 150 words each:

a) Describe the nature of social organization work in industrial society.

b) Discuss the importance of ‘power elite’ in democracy.

c) Is religion playing an important role in increasing fundamentalism? Give

d) To what extent is patriarchy a cause for the problems of women? Discuss.

e) “ Social conflict is both a cause and a consequence of social change.” Explain.


Q.6)  a)  “Globalization has pushed the labour into formal organization of work.” Substantiate your answer with suitable Examples.

b) “Social change can be brought about through development.” Illustrate from the contemporary situation of India.                                                                                                   

c) Examine the role of protect movements in changing the status of Dalits in India


Q.7)  a)  “Religious pluralism is the order of present-day societies.” Explain by giving suitable examples.                                                                                                              

b) Discuss the contemporary trends in family as a response to social change in modern society.

c) To what extent revolution replaces the existing order of society? Discuss


Q.8)  a) “Education is a major source of social mobility in contemporary society.”

b) How is Durkheim’s theory of religion different from Max Weber’s theory of religion?

c) Distinguish between family and household as sociological concepts.                


Download : UPSC Mains 2016 Public Administration Paper -1

Download the Public Administration Question Paper from the link below:

CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD Public Administration Question Paper -1

Answer the following Questions in about 150 words each: 

Q.1)  a) “Taylorism is considered very  controversial despite its popularity.” (Stephen P. Waring) Comment.

b) “Public Administration is the translation of politics into reality that citizens see everyday.”(Donald F. Kettl and James W. Fesler) Explain.

c) “Morale can drive an organization forward or can lead to employees” discontent, poor job performance and absenteeism”.

d) “The autonomy of Public Corporations raised a great debate about their internal working and external relatin with the Ministers and the Parliament.”

e) “In spite of certain advantages, Social Audit arrangements have mostly been ineffective because there is no legal provision for punitive action.”


 Q.2)  a) “Douglas McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y describe two  contrasting models of workforce motivation applied by managers in an organization.” Examine.

b) “The New Public Administration has seriously jolted the traditional concepts and outlook of the discipline and enriched the subject by imparting wider perspective by linking it closely to the society.” (Felix A. Nigro and Lloyd G. Nigro) Elucidate.

c) “The central concern of Administrative Law has been the legal limitation of administrative discretion.” Give reasons.


Q.3) a) “if the Regulatory Commissions…..are wholly independent, they are completely irresponsible for the doing of very important policy determining  and Administrative work ….. on the other hand, to rob the commissions of their independence is seriously to menace the impartial performance of their judicial work.” (Cushman) Examine.

b) “Goood governance is ensuring respect for human rights and strengthening democracy, promoting transparency and capacity in Public Administration.” (Kofi Annan) In the light of the statement, critically examine the criteria of good governance as provided by United Nations and Nayef Al-Rodhan.

c) “The legislative control over administration is not as effective as it ought to be”.


Q.4) a)”Blake and Mouton defined leadership styles based on two dimensions-concern for people and concern for production.” In the light of statement, discuss the Managerial Grid Model. Explain with reason which one of the styles is the best.

b) “ bureau-Shaping Model has been developed as a response to the Budget-Maximizing Model.”

c) “Civil Society performs a key role in defending people against the state and market and in asserting the democratic will to influence the State”. Analyze the statement with suitable



Answer the following questions in about 150 words each:

Q.5) a) “Training is considered as paid holidays.” Comment.

b) “Public Borrowing produces different effects on the economy.” Examine.

c) “Self-Help Groups are considered as one of the most significant tools to adopt participatory approach for economic empowerment of women”. Comment.

d) “Riggs observed that three ‘trends’ Could be discerned in the comparative study of Public Administration.” Discuss.

e) “In Public Policy Marking, ‘Rationalism’ is the opposite of ‘incrementalism’.”


 Q.6)  a) “Fred Riggs continuously changed his theory in order to create the perfect model.” Comment.

b) “The idea of development stands like a ruin in the intellectual landscape’ and “It is time to dismantle this mental structure”. (Wolfgang Sachs) In the light of the statement, Critically examine the anti-development thesis.

c) “Information Technology brings efficiency and transparency to Public Administration.” Examine the statement with suitable examples.


Q.7) a) “Fiscal policy and monetary policy are the two tools used by the state to achieve its macroeconomic objectives.” Examine the statement and point out the differences between the tools.

b) “A central reason for utilization of Performance Appraisal is performance improvement of the employees.” In the light of the statement, analyze the needs of Performance Appraisal in an organization.

c) “The problem is to achieve the right balance between a competitive market economy and an effective state: Markets where possible, the state where necessary.” Justify your answer.


Q.8) a) “The key to understanding performance-based budgeting lies beneath the word ‘result’ ”. In the light of the statement, examine the elements of performance-based budgeting.

b) “Disciplinary action may be informal and formal.” Explain and point out the provisions made in the Constitution or Statute to check the misuse of power to take disciplinary action.

c) “The term ‘work study’ may be used in narrower and wider senses.” Elucidate.