There has been a decline in the share of rural population in total migration in recent years. Why? Also list the conventional causes behind urban migration in India. 


Indian decennial census of 2011 has reported increase in the pace of migration but decrease in share of rural population in total migrant population. The reasons are:

• Improved economic opportunities in rural areas: Increased allied activities coupled with government initiatives as MGNREGA has supplemented the rural incomes. Also initiatives as e-NAM, subsidies towards agriculture have helped raise the rural incomes.
• Reducing rural and urban wage gap: Rural and urban wages are relatively close, reducing the incentive for workers to migrate.
• Improved standard of living in rural areas: Implementation of schemes as DDUGJY for rural electrification; Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojna for improved road connectivity; PMAY for housing; increased digital network; PURA has helped rural population; improved bank connectivity by Payment banks, business correspondents have led to rural people looking for opportunities in their own place as it leaves behind a sense of belongingness.
• Livability concerns in urban: Increasing cost of living in urban areas and increased pollution also holds back the rural people from migrating to urban areas.
• Local opportunities: Increased opportunities within their vicinity due to improved regional development have also decreased rural-rural migration.
• Reduction in influence of socio-cultural factors: Earliermarriage which was the main cause of migration is no longer a primary reason. This could be due to better living standards and improved opportunities’ provided by schemes like Startup/standup, increased SHG penetration, NRLM and easy women finances for entrepreneurship women tend to lead a stay back.
Conventional causes behind migration:
Push factors in rural areas:
• High social prejudices: Social system of caste , religion are very strong in rural areas. They are very difficult to break for lower castes even if opportunities are available which perpetuates them in vicious poverty.
• Low level of economic opportunities: Economic productivity of agriculture is low. And those without land find it tough to find viable economic opportunities
• Marriage: Mostly girls had to move to different place after getting married as urban areas provides economic opportunities for them as well as their partners.
Pull factors in urban areas:
• Social system like anonymity of caste system, private sectors emergence provides the lower section opportunities to break their poverty circle
• Economically urban areas provide better job opportunities;raised standard of living- better education and health facilities, good connectivity urban areas as well as better security.

The Declining rate of rural migration will help in reducing the stress over already congested cities with increased satisfaction of people as being remain attached of their origin place. The Govt.’s RURBAN mission, SFURTI, ASPIRE schemes for rural development are the welcomes steps in this direction.


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