Bihar/ Art & Culture
Madhubani/ Mithila painting
- It was in use in Mithila region for long time but discovered and known to world after 1935 earthquake through a British officer Archer.
- The paintings were originally done on walls coated with mud and cow dung. These were traditionally done in Kohbar ghar or the nuptial chamber.
- Originally the paintings depicted an assembly of symbolic images of the lotus plant, the bamboo grove, fishes, birds and snakes in union. These images represented fertility and proliferation of life.
- The divine beings are positioned centrally in the frame while their consorts and floral motifs form the background. The human figures are mostly abstract and linear in form.
- The coloring is of two styles – Kachni (hatching) and Bharni (shading.) Kachni uses delicate fine lines to fill the painting and not much color is used. Bharni (shading) uses solid colors to shade and fill the pictures. It uses black outlines filled with vibrant colors.
- The art had been practiced among the upper castes. But now every one is involved because of it becoming famous after the govt's efforts in 1970s by India gandhi.
- Famous place: Jitwarpur (a famous village) Madhubani, Darbhanga.
Bihar/ Art & Culture
Manjusha/ Angika Art
- Scroll painting (based on Folklore of Bihula- Bishari), practiced in Bhagalpur, Bihar.
- Discovered and known to the world after 1935 Earthquake through British official Archer (along with Madhubani painting).
- The Sanskrit word “Manjusa” means a box and Manjusas are temple shaped boxes, made of bamboo, Jute-Straw and Paper, inside which the devotees keep their ceremonial materials. These boxes are however illustrated with paintings that tell a tale.
- This Art was practiced by only 2 families: Kumbhakar caste and Malakar caste.
- The outline is first drawn and then filled in. Everything is drawn freehand. Pink, Green, Yellow are the three colours that are used in this Art.
- All the characters and any human form are depicted in the form of English letter ‘X’ with limbs drawn with linear and uniform bold lines. For decoration, wavy lines are used. Five types of borders are used: Lehriya, Belpatra, Sarp ki ladi, Tribhuj and Mokha.
Bihar/ NGO, governance case study
- The first focused on strengthening governance and school processes.
- The second component was an effort to strengthen the pedagogy by re-grouping children in standards three to five according to their learning levels rather than age, and provide them with remedial education for two hours during the school day. This was complemented by a clearly defined target of achievement.
- Bodh Gaya: Gautama attained Enlightenment here
- Rajgir: Buddha taught the Perfection of Wisdom and subdued an angry elephant through his compassion.
- Vaishali: Buddha ordained the first female nuns and this is also the place where he received an offering of honey from a monkey.
- Sahasram, Barabar Caves: Minor Rock Edicts of Ashoka are here
- Lauriya-Araraj, Lauriya-Navandgarh: Major Pillar Edicts of Ashoka are here
- Takht Sri Patna Sahib: Birthplace of Guru Gobind Singh
- Nalanda University and Vikramshila University: 2 most important centers of learning in Ancient India
- Vajji: It covered the modern North Bihar. It is indicated to have been a republic.
- Magadha: It covered South-western Bihar
- Anga: It covered South-eastern Bihar
- Buxar: Place where the Battle of Buxar took place in 1764.