Mains Marathon

Answered: Mains Marathon – UPSC Mains Current Affairs Questions – May 2nd

  1. “A One Nation One Market Model for Farmers, on the lines of GST is the panacea for agricultural marketing in India” Discuss.

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  • The Indian government is working on creating a common agricultural market that will improve the lot of farmers and the efficiencies of India’s notoriously inefficient farm-produce markets.
  • The government put out a model law proposing a fundamental reset in the way agricultural markets operate.
  • It proposes to replace existing fragmented and over-regulated markets for agricultural produce and allow farmers a wider choice of markets beyond the local mandior wholesale markets.


  • As more states join the reform agenda, farmers can expect prices that are remunerative and transparent.
  • The government last year launched an electronic National Agriculture Market (eNAM) platform in April 2016 and later set an ambitious target of doubling farm incomes by 2022.
  • This was followed by a model law on land leasing (making it easier for tenant farmers to access credit and insurance) and another on agriculture marketing. A law on contract farming is in the works.
  • The current thrust on connecting farmers to markets complements the government’s earlier effort to reduce growing risks in agriculture through a revamped crop insurance scheme and massive funding of irrigation projects.
  • The new model law on agriculture marketing adds a range of reforms to the required amendments for joining eNAM. These include allowing setting up of private markets, direct sale of produce by farmers to bulk buyers and capping market fees and commission charges payable by a farmer.
  • Most importantly, it withdraws the power to issue trading licences from the mandis—managed by a board of traders—and vests it with the state’s director of agriculture marketing.
  • Several states seemed to be willing to sign on.


  • Agriculture marketing is a state subject and the centre can only propose a blueprint. The eventual rollout will depend on the state governments. A model Agricultural Produce Marketing Committee (APMC) law was first proposed in 2003 but made little progress.
  • Many states have amended their marketing acts but are yet to notify rules. Maharashtra, for instance, delisted fruits and vegetables a year back but did not notify rules following pressure from the powerful traders’ lobby.

The centre can bring in enabling legislation to allow inter-state trade.It will deploy the political capital to overhaul agriculture marketing the way it did for GST.

  1. Despite emerging convergences between India and Turkey, resilient and close India Turkey ties remain a distant dream. In the light of the given statement, examine India Turkey Relations.

Link 1 | Link 2 Link 3

India turkey relations:-

High points:-

  • Terrorism:-
    • India would always have Turkey’s full solidarity in the fight against terrorism.
    • Both sides urged all countries and entities to work sincerely to disrupt terrorist networks and their financing, and stop cross-border movement of terrorists.
  • Support for membership in International agencies:
    • Turkey’s support for India’s membership of the MTCR and applications to join the Nuclear Suppliers Group” and Wassenaar Arrangement.
    • UN:-
      • supported India’s bid for a permanent seat in the United Nations Security Council, even as he called for major reforms in the exclusive body.
  • Economy:-
    • Several bilateral agreements and institutional mechanisms, at the governmental level as well as in business-to-business (B2B) , provide the framework for strengthening economic and commercial ties, including the India–Turkey Joint Committee on Economic and Technical Cooperation (JCETC) and India-Turkey Joint Business Council (JBC) between the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and the Industry (FICCI) and Foreign Economic Relations Board of Turkey (DEIK).
    • More recently in April 2015, the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with the Union of Chambers and Commodity Exchanges of Turkey (TOBB) to promote bilateral trade and economic cooperation.
    • The TOBB also signed a cooperation agreement with the FICCI for establishing the India-Turkey Working Committee and Investment Forums.
    • In August 2015, State Bank of India and Turkey’s Akbank entered into a cooperation agreement to support bilateral trade and investments.
    • In December 2016, the Reserve Bank of India signed a MoU on “Supervisory Cooperation and Exchange of Supervisory Information” with the Banking Regulation and Supervision Agency of Republic of Turkey.
    • Earlier, several Indian companies entered the Turkish market. Notable among them are Polyplex.
    • India is also among the major trade partners of Turkey. According to Turkish statistics, the bilateral trade volume between India and Turkey was about $6.4 billion in 2016
    • The two sides recently also discussed economic ties. The two leaders have set a target of US $10 billion, up from the existing US $6 billion, by 2020.
  • Cultural relations:-
    • India and Turkey also have a cultural overlap. The Sufi philosophy of Mevlana Jelaluddin Rumi found resonance in the Indian sub-continent with its own traditions of Sufism and the Bhakti movement. There are also many common words in both Hindustani and Turkish languages.
  • Defence:-
    • Turkey military industry and the technology is in line with india’s Make in India in Defence sector.
  • Climate change:-
    • Both countries are committed to Paris Agreement


  • Economy:-
  • Bilateral trade turnover of around $6 billion does not do full justice to convergences in our economies.
  • Kashmir issue:-
    • Turkey wanted a multilateral dialogue but India drew the red line that Kashmir is a “bilateral” issue between India and Pakistan and that it sees the dispute through the prism of “cross-border and state-sponsored terrorism” being perpetrated by Pakistan in the Valley.
    • Turkey hyphenated its ‘gesture’ with a similar status for Pakistan, a country with which Turkey has extremely close political and strategic relations, and supporting Pakistan’s case for NSG membership.
  • Syria issue:
    • Turkey favour the removal of Assad regime in line with NATO whereas india favour the peaceful dispute resolution
  • Russian role:
    • India has good relation with it whereas turkey has deteriorated its relation with russia over shooting its plane.

The recent meetings show India turkey relations are moving ahead in an amicable note .

  1. A robust IPR regime is necessary for growth. Discuss India’s performance at implementation of IP Laws, and suggest measures to improve India’s perception as a protector of Intellectual Property Rights.

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  • IPRs are critical to incentivizing innovation, which, in turn, is key to sustaining economic growth and increasing living standards.
  • The International IP Index 2017 released by the US Chamber of Commerce, appropriately titled “The Roots Of Innovation”, compares India’s intellectual property environment with that of 44 other world economies. The index ranked India at a dismal 43rd position out of 45 countries.

Positive performance:-

  • The new IPR policy:
    • The Policy aims to push IPRs as a marketable financial asset, promote innovation and entrepreneurship, while protecting public interest.
    • The policy is entirely compliant with the WTO’s agreement on TRIPS.
    • Special thrust on awareness generation and effective enforcement of IPRs, besides encouragement of IP commercialisation through various incentives.
    • India will engage constructively in the negotiation of international treaties and agreements in consultation with stakeholders. The government will examine accession to some multilateral treaties which are in India’s interest, and become a signatory to those treaties which India has de facto implemented to enable it to participate in their decision making process
    • Films, music, industrial drawings will be all covered by copyright.
    • The Policy also seeks to facilitate domestic IPR filings, for the entire value chain from IPR generation to commercialisation. It aims to promote research and development through tax benefits.
    • The IPR policy favoured the government considering financial support for a limited period on sale and export of products based on IPRs generated from public-funded research.
  • Proposal to create an effective loan guarantee scheme to encourage start-ups.


  • In India, there is still a dearth of evidence-based research that can inform our laws, practice and policy-making pertaining to IPRs.
  • They do not adequately appreciate the fundamental reality that IP laws and policies are meant to incentivise innovation by establishing enforceable boundaries to protect new products, processes, and original works of expression.
  • Multiple problems are still faced by pharmaceutical, software, biotechnology, automotive, movie, music and other technology-led, IP-intensive industries.
  • Implementation of various laws has been lax. Patent or copyright infringement and piracy in India is not uncommon. It is also the fact that India has poor performance in R&D, where it accounts for meagre 2.7% of global expenditure. Poor IPR protection regime plays some part in this.
  • According to intellectual property index,Patent protection in India remains outside of international best practices.
  • Indian law does not provide adequate enforcement mechanisms to effectively combat online piracy.
  • Among India’s key areas of weakness was the use of compulsory licensing (CL) for commercial and non-emergency situations, and the expanded use of CL being considered by the Indian government.
  • Another area of weakness was poor application and enforcement of civil remedies and criminal penalties.

Measures to improve:-

  • Government needs to build upon the positive rhetoric of its IPR policy with the substantial legislative reforms that innovators need.
  • In order to have strong and effective IPR laws, steps would be taken including review of existing IP laws to update and improve them or to remove anomalies and inconsistencies.
  • Beliefs, attitudes and approaches towards IPRs in India must change for the sake of the ambitions articulated in this government’s many initiatives from Make In India to Startup India and Smart Cities.
  • Various subject matters in IPR are dealt by different departments and ministries, there needs to be some integration among these arms. This integration is prerequisite for formulating an integral IPR policy and taking stand at various international forums.


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