Doubt Clearance Thread: UPSC 2020

"When in doubt, observe and ask questions. When certain, observe at length and ask many more questions."

Created this thread as a one stop solution for all members so that all the doubts wherein any conceptual clarification is required can be solved here. 

jack_Sparrow , curious_kid and 50 others like this
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SPSahab said

What are the lists we need to mug up for prelims?

One is list of national parks,biosphere reserves.  Please add more such topics. 

This can be divided in two parts. List, from static portion. And the other from dynamic.

Static:

1. Polity Basic- Constitution comparison, Bodies and institutions deriving power from constitution, result of initial lok sabha elections, first cabinet and portfolio, 'Chronology' of main events post 1947


2. History- We all know the importance of events which occurred between 1935-1947


3. Geography- Have personally tried to locate important places on google map. Sharing here for everyone's benefit. It's very easy to navigate on g-maps.

Ramsar Sites-ttps://goo.gl/maps/TPBz79FUv1AFPMeX9


National Park

Lakes and Glaciers

Important Passes of India

Of course, the course of major rivers

Latest map released by Home Ministry post 370

Mountain Peaks and Ranges- with special focus on Kashmir (Pir panjal, Ladhak) and NE

Biosphere Reserve

Disaster Management Zones

List of countries surrounded by- major seas and Ocean bodies. 



4. Economics- What constitutes/ or do not constitutes-part of national income, goods in CPI basket, transactions pertaining to current/capital account, very basic of diff items in diff gst slabs etc.


5. Art and Culture- A table showcasing basic info about Dance form-state, painting-state, music-state, puppetary-state, theatre-state relationship.


Dynamic:

Map based activities based on current affairs. For this, one can compile first page index of vision ias monthly, for last 2 years. This will have total 24 pages. After this, marking important places on map (or pinning the location on Google maps).

curious_kid, upsc2020 and 4 others like this
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What is the difference between Waman Rao case and I.R.Coelho case?

Waman rao case was the case like when Modi ji was declared as People's Love in 2014. I R Coelho was the case like when Modi ji was re-confirmed VERY CLEARLY, OBJECTIVELY AND MORE LOUDLY as People's Love in 2019 ! 


Simply speaking - Both examined the Ninth Schedule validity post Keshwanand bharti BUT IRC case was more clear,more wide (like enabled RIGHTS TEST in examining 9th schedule laws etc) and more objective assertion by the hon'ble SC about Ninth Schedule and Basic structure doctrine relationship. :) 


Isse jyada mat padna, upsc mein koi kaam nahi aayega. Just remember both dealt with ninth schedule validity issue post Keshavananda !!

mightyraju, Kira0705 and 4 others like this
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Decision of Speaker regarding declaring a bill as money bill is not open to judicial review. Is this statement correct as given in laxmikanth, in the light of 2018 Aadhar judgement. Please clarify what should be the final position. Thanks

Leave exceptions and accept generalized views given in the standard books especially NCERTs. In law matters, until and unless honorable SC with a CONSTITUTIONAL BENCH ANNOUNCES (not just do it) something NEW as future truth, only previous truth shall be accepted. 


So as of now, Laxminkanth view stands true if asked as a general statement. But if upsc clearly add riders like NO MONEY BILL DECISION EVER CHALLENGED IN SC then it should be untrue. 



(https://m.economictimes.com/news/politics-and-nation/supreme-court-to-examine-whether-lok-sabha-speakers-decision-can-be-scrutinised/articleshow/62544147.cms)


I hope this clear your doubt. Apply same to all such polity / law doubts. 

Naadan_Parinda, HarveySpectre and 2 others like this
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“To protect monuments, places, and objects of artistic or historic interest” is a provision made under

: (a) Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles of State Policy

(b) Directive Principles of State Policy only

(c) Fundamental Duties only

(d) Directive Principles of State Policy and Fundamental Duties 

I need a little help here... I think answer should be (d)

But it is wrong as per key. why?

The fundamental duty you are confusing it with says- to value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture;

protection is a duty of state; citizens have to value and preserve the monument.


Patrick_jane, HotBloodPrince and 2 others like this
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Collegium for SC judges appointment & transfer of SC/HC judges has CJI+ 4 senior most judges of SC while ,

Collegium for high court judges appointment has CJI + 2 senior most judges

Prakhar96, Shivangigarg and 2 others like this
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Independent director is part of the board. This board is supposed to represent the investors and owners interest and appoints a CEO who is supposed to run the company.

Now if you have read the papers of recent Mr Wadhwa case, people when they are the owners / investors and are also the CEO / managmenet of the company, then what they will do is 

  • Move money from company account to CEO or management account by paying high salaries.
  • Create shell companies and move company money to these companies and escape with the money. For example amarpali group collected money for giving house to people but transferred money to shell companies and planned to escape from the country.
  • But a company will have many small shareholders also. It does not belong to the majority shareholder or the promoter ( who started the company )
  • To protect the interest of shareholders two things are needed
  • One, owners of company should not be part of management. They should appoint management and hold it accountable. They should only be in board of directors.
  • Two, in this board of directors that appoints the ceo and makes major decisions of the company, there should be an independent director.
  • Independent director has to sign board resolutions / decisions
  • If anything goes wrong in company , such as siphoning off money or giving very high salary to family members of owners who are hired as employees , (which will later be caught if company runs out of money) then it is expected that independent director will raise an alarm and thus the company all investors will come to know. It will ensure that company is on right track and is working in interest of shareholder.


root, GaryVee and 2 others like this
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@Simranmanocha I may be wrong..I am not able to get 2nd statement
Hydrochloroflorocarbon has high ozone depletion and they don't have much global warming potential.
May be I am confused in this. 
Anyone pls help


hey! Few thumb rules about global warming and ozone depletion.

Global warming Potential depends on:

1.how long it remains in the atmosphere (its “lifetime”).

2.how much radiation it absorbs.

ozone depletion depends on:

1.How easily can the hydrocarbon release a halogen ion(Cl, F) into the atmosphere i.e., how unstable the hydrocarbon is.(halogens react with Ozone to deplete it).

So now to answer your question, HFCs are so stable that they literally release 0 fluorine ions. Instead they remain in the atmosphere for longer time and absorb much radiation.  HCFCs are less stable compared to HFCs so Vice versa.

PS: Florine atoms are small hence less repulsions in HFC and hence are stable. Hope you can see through it now.


cot_ainok, Amarbabu and 2 others like this
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MicroRNA :blush:

Naadan_Parinda, Tetsuko and 2 others like this
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What should be answer of this? To my mind it should be B. This asked in 2019.

  1. Most of the India's external debt is owed by private sector as through ECB and not by the public sector
  2. Majority of india's external debt isin Us$ currency>Indian rupees>IME's SDR>yen,euro, pound Sterling etc 
  3. Hence D is the ans
Patrick_jane, GreenArrow and 2 others like this
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Can anyone please explain how to solve such questions

(UPSC 2010)

from the point of view of evolution, which one of the following is the correct sequence -

a) Otter- Tortoise- Shark

b) shark- tortoise- otter

c) tortoise- shark-otter

d)shark-otter-tortoise



same question in 2009 also-

this time the options are different

a) octopus- dolphin- shark

b) pangolin- tortoise- hawk

c) salamander- python- kangaroo

d) frog- crab- prawn

Is answer for PYQ 2010 - (b), PYQ 2009 - (c) ?

@capricornape, yes. 
How did you identify it?

@AlexanderSupertramp - I used the simple logic that life 1st started in water. Thereafter amphibians would come, then land animals. 

Similarly, for the 2009 question, a more complex being should come at last (i.e. Kangaroo).

I don't know if this will hold true for all questions, but I know that UPSC will not always attack your rote memory but also test your common sense. 

AlexanderSupertramp, Agog and 1 others like this
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This isn’t a previous year question.But what should be the answer to this question?


Which of the following correctly defines Fiscal Deficit?

(a)Excess of total expenditure over revenue receipts and non-debt creating capital receipts

(b)Borrowings from RBI, abroad as well as net borrowing at home

(c)Excess of government’s total expenditure over total receipts

(d)Both (a) and (b)


In my opinion, the answer should be (a). But the answer key says (d).

D hi sahi h. Budget Deficit concept was discarded after S Chakraborty etc pointed out that it was including borrowings too which was nothing but the amount taken by govt to bridge the gap between it's expenditure and revenue. So FD came which is both A and B technically. 

Tetsuko, GreenArrow and 1 others like this
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@12432TrivendrumRajdhani 

1. Focus on trends and boxes. Do not read it line by line. 

2. Try to read a chapter a day. One should not try to finish the entire ES in one go. 

3. Vol 2 is more Mains centric - esp from chapters starting with Agriculture. Read so that you can inculcate points in answers. Multiple readings help here. 

ssver2, GreenArrow and 1 others like this
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What is the difference between appointment by President and appointment by Central government.. 


It's difference of day and night. When someone is appointed by Hon'ble Pres - s/he is protected by Him/her and stays till his Pleasure (maximum job security ideally !). If ministry appoints you, you stays till pleasure of the minister. That means political compulsions can get you out in more easily if you are later category civil servant. All India Services appointed by Mahamahim - so protected under Art 311 which is extra tight article for protection of civil servants.

Neyawn, Kira0705 and 1 others like this
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Akash_W said

Which sect of Jainism did Sthulbahu belonged to? While TN Textbook says that he belonged to Digambar sect, but some other sources say he belonged to Svetambar sect. Does anyone have authentic and clear information about it?

sthulbahu belongs to svetembhara sect....and stayed in north india during famine.. while anther sect which is now called digambara sect moved to south india...

Tetsuko, upsc2020 and 1 others like this
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What is the difference between appointment by President and appointment by Central government.. 


It's difference of day and night. When someone is appointed by Hon'ble Pres - s/he is protected by Him/her and stays till his Pleasure (maximum job security ideally !). If ministry appoints you, you stays till pleasure of the minister. That means political compulsions can get you out in more easily if you are later category civil servant. All India Services appointed by Mahamahim - so protected under Art 311 which is extra tight article for protection of civil servants.

+1 

It is really get to see your enthusiastically answer the questions, sire!

When I was selected for a certain govt job, long back, I quickly checked who the appointing authority was. It was the Central Govt. The appointment letter was signed by Additional or Under Secy Rural Development. 

What does this mean?

This means that anytime the Central Govt wanted , they could remove me with just a letter signed by the Secy, Rural Development. 

When you are appointed to the All India Services, the appointment is by the President, who , is also the authority who can remove such officials. 

This means that if the govt quickly wants to remove someone, they have send the letter to President. While the President is bound to follow the advice, note that President may apply his mind to such recommendations. Or even sit on it for a long time ( The pocket of Indian President , as you may have read is deeper than the American President ). So it is not easy for central govts to remove someone appointed by the President. If for some reason that President is not happy, he may require additional information from the Govt.

So this makes a lot of difference.

Also, with respect to submission of reports, if a Constitutional Body is there, then it is most likely to submit its report to the President than the Govt. That additional layer of having the President takes away a lot of whims and facies of the govt in effect.

Please also note that when governments are in absolute majority, neither the President not the Supreme Courts are able to withstand executive pressure. 

Kira0705, HarveySpectre and 1 others like this
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Sir, can you please explain the concept of sudden stratospheric warming and its impact on the ozone layer depletion? Thank you, 



  ......this may help you

upsc2020, Amarbabu and 1 others like this
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@HarveySpectre  Bhai yeh le


Thanks. Can somebody list down the errors/exceptions in Laxmikant/any other standard book? This will save time. 

Tetsuko, CaptainVyom and 1 others like this
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Muhammadan educational conference was established by Sir Syed Ahmed as a precursor of Muhammadan Anglo - Oriental College 


This statement is wrong , what is the correct answer ?

Muhammadan anglo-oriental college was established in 1875 whereas, Muhammadan educational conference was started in 1886. So it couldn't have acted as a precursor.


Prakhar96, Casablanca and 1 others like this
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Can anyone please explain how to solve such questions

(UPSC 2010)

from the point of view of evolution, which one of the following is the correct sequence -

a) Otter- Tortoise- Shark

b) shark- tortoise- otter

c) tortoise- shark-otter

d)shark-otter-tortoise



same question in 2009 also-

this time the options are different

a) octopus- dolphin- shark

b) pangolin- tortoise- hawk

c) salamander- python- kangaroo

d) frog- crab- prawn

Ok so the only way which I have figured out to deal with these questions is through the standard evolution diagram given in every science/geo book. 


This question we had discussed on PYQ thread as well: https://forumias.com/post/detail/Previous-Year-Questions-60-Days-Mission-1585383124?JSwzPFAtUzhgCmAK


Naadan_Parinda, AlexanderSupertramp and 1 others like this
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With reference to Marine protected areas .were they established by WPA1972? Are they defined anywhere? 

yes they are designated under WPA, 1972

https://vikaspedia.in/energy/environment/biodiversity-1/the-coastal-ecosystem

Wats_there_in_a_name, TwoFace and 1 others like this
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