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Doubt Clearance Thread: UPSC 2020

"When in doubt, observe and ask questions. When certain, observe at length and ask many more questions."

Created this thread as a one stop solution for all members so that all the doubts wherein any conceptual clarification is required can be solved here. 

jack_Sparrow , curious_kid and 68 others like this


Answer with explanation please

One tip for medieval questions-

1. With respect to questions centred around politico-administrative machinery like Iqta system, Amar Nayaka system where a subsidiary unit gets some semblance of power, the status of these units is linked to the power of the King. It will be inversely proportional to the power of the king.

Eg: Iqta system was introduced by Iltutmish. He was a powerful Sultan. The kingdom was prosperous as well. So, Iqtadars were transferred at the whims and fancies of the Sultan.

Likewise, Vijayanagar kings were powerful. So, to assert their powers, they transferred Amar Nayakas at their own discretion.

Let's see a different scenario. During the reign of Feroz Shah Tughlaq, the kingdom was in tatters after the poor governance of his predecessor, Mohd. Bin Tughlaq. So, to appease the subsidiary units and to avoid a possible coup d'etat, he made the Iqta system hereditary. Shows how weak the king is when he is willing to share his power with other groups!

Likewise, Britishers introduced Permanent Settlement to ensure that they continue to assert their power. The Sunset revenue clause meant the land was transferrable and not a hereditary commodity anymore!

This kind of logic will help you answer other questions related to society, polity and economy of medieval dynasties.

Coming to the question now-

1 is correct. 2 is correct because they were indeed given independent territories to govern that explains why rebellious amar nayakas started troubling the successor of Krishna Deva Raya. (Kings became weak, so nayakas asserted power). They acted like feudal lords- got the land tax-free (manyams) and collected the revenue. 

3 is also correct as discussed.

Caesar, Aurora and 7 others like this

There are a few errors in the Laxmikant book that I feel must be shared with you all.

1. Private members can introduce the money bills. There is no bar. Please refer Rule 65 of the Rules of Procedure and Conduct of Business in LS

Laxmikant says- Private members cannot introduce money bills.

2. The office of Chief whip is neither mentioned in the constitution nor in the Rules of Procedure, but it is mentioned in a parliamentary statute. See THE LEADERS AND CHIEF WHIPS OF RECOGNISED PARTIES AND GROUPS IN PARLIAMENT (FACILITIES) ACT, 1998

Laxmikant says- It is not mentioned even in a Parliamentary statute and is based on the conventions of the parliamentary government. This is wrong!

Please keep in mind these corrections. The UPSC doesn't pick questions from Laxmikant unlike these coaching institutes :)

Caesar, Aurora and 6 others like this

MarcusA said

noticed a common theme in upsc questions= if a statement mentions half/partial truth, then it  is generally considered to be true

1.1946 constituent assembly was elected by provincial bodies.( though CA had also members nominated by princely states, the given statement itself is not negated, therefore should be marked correct)


1.The Santhal rebellion was organized both against the British colonial authority and zamindari system

( though their revolt was against the dikus who in general were all outsiders ,including the above, this in itself does not make the statement  incorrect).

Good observation. Yes yes yes. Now you are developing the gut feeling / hunch :)

Basically this means that(1) if we cannot say conclusively that the statement is wrong, then it is true. 

( 2) Can we say that opposite / falsified version of the statement is true? If we cannot, then this one is true.

1946 constituent assembly was NOT

elected by provincial bodies

We cannot say that the above statement is false. Parts of it were elected by provincial bodies.

Therefore the first one is true. 

Tetsuko, GaryVee and 6 others like this

SPSahab said

What are the lists we need to mug up for prelims?

One is list of national parks,biosphere reserves.  Please add more such topics. 

This can be divided in two parts. List, from static portion. And the other from dynamic.


1. Polity Basic- Constitution comparison, Bodies and institutions deriving power from constitution, result of initial lok sabha elections, first cabinet and portfolio, 'Chronology' of main events post 1947

2. History- We all know the importance of events which occurred between 1935-1947

3. Geography- Have personally tried to locate important places on google map. Sharing here for everyone's benefit. It's very easy to navigate on g-maps.

Ramsar Sites-ttps://

National Park

Lakes and Glaciers

Important Passes of India

Of course, the course of major rivers

Latest map released by Home Ministry post 370

Mountain Peaks and Ranges- with special focus on Kashmir (Pir panjal, Ladhak) and NE

Biosphere Reserve

Disaster Management Zones

List of countries surrounded by- major seas and Ocean bodies. 

4. Economics- What constitutes/ or do not constitutes-part of national income, goods in CPI basket, transactions pertaining to current/capital account, very basic of diff items in diff gst slabs etc.

5. Art and Culture- A table showcasing basic info about Dance form-state, painting-state, music-state, puppetary-state, theatre-state relationship.


Map based activities based on current affairs. For this, one can compile first page index of vision ias monthly, for last 2 years. This will have total 24 pages. After this, marking important places on map (or pinning the location on Google maps).

curious_kid, AllMight and 5 others like this

Neyawn said

One quick questions for thinking people.

#1 Can a member of ruling party present a private member's bill? Is presidential permission needed for private members bill?

Yes. Any Member of Parliament who is not a minister in Union Cabinet is a private member and can present a PMB. Presidential permission is not required. 

In news in 2020: LS Speaker amended the 'Directions by Speaker', the guidelines to be followed by the presiding officer, to cap the private members' bills a member can introduce in a session. Capped at 3. 

Neyawn, Tetsuko and 4 others like this
What is the difference between Waman Rao case and I.R.Coelho case?

Waman rao case was the case like when Modi ji was declared as People's Love in 2014. I R Coelho was the case like when Modi ji was re-confirmed VERY CLEARLY, OBJECTIVELY AND MORE LOUDLY as People's Love in 2019 ! 

Simply speaking - Both examined the Ninth Schedule validity post Keshwanand bharti BUT IRC case was more clear,more wide (like enabled RIGHTS TEST in examining 9th schedule laws etc) and more objective assertion by the hon'ble SC about Ninth Schedule and Basic structure doctrine relationship. :) 

Isse jyada mat padna, upsc mein koi kaam nahi aayega. Just remember both dealt with ninth schedule validity issue post Keshavananda !!

mightyraju, Kira0705 and 4 others like this

@AzadHindFauz  bhai kya yeh sab puchaga upsc??? 😒

Not at all. No need to do these technological developments. They are still evolving. UPSC doesn't ask ambiguous techniques.

For COVID, these must be done-

1. Antigen, Antibodies

2. Immunity- acquired and innate

3. RT-PCR test, rapid antigen test, pool test, ELISA

4. Herd immunity

5. Epidemic, Pandemic

6. SARS, MERS, N-Cov viruses

7. DNA, RNA, Protein, Transcription, Translation, Blood fractionation process, Plasma therapy

8. Ro, R and terms associated like infectivity rate, incubation period

9. Vaccine nationalism, types of vaccines- recombinant, conjugate, RNA vaccines etc. 

10. Global coalitions for vaccine could be skimmed through once. 

If anything beyond this is asked, you don't have to worry because 99% junta wouldn't be knowing it too. Such a question will be put in the 'bouncer' category of this year! 

AlexanderSupertramp, Freakhoto and 3 others like this

Collegium for SC judges appointment & transfer of SC/HC judges has CJI+ 4 senior most judges of SC while ,

Collegium for high court judges appointment has CJI + 2 senior most judges

AllMight, ArchAngel96 and 3 others like this

Independent director is part of the board. This board is supposed to represent the investors and owners interest and appoints a CEO who is supposed to run the company.

Now if you have read the papers of recent Mr Wadhwa case, people when they are the owners / investors and are also the CEO / managmenet of the company, then what they will do is 

  • Move money from company account to CEO or management account by paying high salaries.
  • Create shell companies and move company money to these companies and escape with the money. For example amarpali group collected money for giving house to people but transferred money to shell companies and planned to escape from the country.
  • But a company will have many small shareholders also. It does not belong to the majority shareholder or the promoter ( who started the company )
  • To protect the interest of shareholders two things are needed
  • One, owners of company should not be part of management. They should appoint management and hold it accountable. They should only be in board of directors.
  • Two, in this board of directors that appoints the ceo and makes major decisions of the company, there should be an independent director.
  • Independent director has to sign board resolutions / decisions
  • If anything goes wrong in company , such as siphoning off money or giving very high salary to family members of owners who are hired as employees , (which will later be caught if company runs out of money) then it is expected that independent director will raise an alarm and thus the company all investors will come to know. It will ensure that company is on right track and is working in interest of shareholder.

root, AllMight and 3 others like this

From Anuradha Bhasin judgement of SC. Her contention was that the restrictions imposed in J&K precluded her (a journalist) from exercising her right under A. 19(1)(g) through the medium of internet. This contention was upheld. Nothing more was said. 

In Faheema Shireen case, Kerala High Court had said that Right to internet was a fundamental right. In this case, the context was that the petitioner was a student staying in the ladies hostel of the college she was studying in. The rules were such that mobile phones (having internet facility) were not permitted to be used past evening hours. Her contention was that this deprived her of her right to life and personal liberty under A. 21. The Court accepted this contention and said that in this day and age, a person should not be arbitrarily deprived of facilities which enable them to achieve their full potential. The internet could well be used as an educational tool, and that was held to be a fundamental right under A. 21.  

Tetsuko, Caesar and 3 others like this


Odd one out is true= eg

 With reference to Mian Tansen, which one of the following statements is not correct?

(a) Tansen was the title given to him by Emperor Akbar
(b) Tansen composed Dhrupads on Hindu gods and goddesses.
(c) Tansen composed songs on his patrons.
(d) Tansen invented many Ragas

only odd statement is A . other deal with songs and ragas

28. Which one of the following National Parks lies completely in the temperate alpine zone?
(a) Manas National Park
(b) Namdapha National Park
(c) Neora Valley National Park
(d) Valley of Flowers National Park

barring valley of flowers all other are in east/northeast

Dhertez, GaryVee and 3 others like this

What should be answer of this? To my mind it should be B. This asked in 2019.

  1. Most of the India's external debt is owed by private sector as through ECB and not by the public sector
  2. Majority of india's external debt isin Us$ currency>Indian rupees>IME's SDR>yen,euro, pound Sterling etc 
  3. Hence D is the ans
Patrick_jane, GreenArrow and 3 others like this
Decision of Speaker regarding declaring a bill as money bill is not open to judicial review. Is this statement correct as given in laxmikanth, in the light of 2018 Aadhar judgement. Please clarify what should be the final position. Thanks

Leave exceptions and accept generalized views given in the standard books especially NCERTs. In law matters, until and unless honorable SC with a CONSTITUTIONAL BENCH ANNOUNCES (not just do it) something NEW as future truth, only previous truth shall be accepted. 

So as of now, Laxminkanth view stands true if asked as a general statement. But if upsc clearly add riders like NO MONEY BILL DECISION EVER CHALLENGED IN SC then it should be untrue. 


I hope this clear your doubt. Apply same to all such polity / law doubts. 

Naadan_Parinda, HarveySpectre and 2 others like this

“To protect monuments, places, and objects of artistic or historic interest” is a provision made under

: (a) Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles of State Policy

(b) Directive Principles of State Policy only

(c) Fundamental Duties only

(d) Directive Principles of State Policy and Fundamental Duties 

I need a little help here... I think answer should be (d)

But it is wrong as per key. why?

The fundamental duty you are confusing it with says- to value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture;

protection is a duty of state; citizens have to value and preserve the monument.

Patrick_jane, HotBloodPrince and 2 others like this
@Simranmanocha I may be wrong..I am not able to get 2nd statement
Hydrochloroflorocarbon has high ozone depletion and they don't have much global warming potential.
May be I am confused in this. 
Anyone pls help

hey! Few thumb rules about global warming and ozone depletion.

Global warming Potential depends on: long it remains in the atmosphere (its “lifetime”). much radiation it absorbs.

ozone depletion depends on:

1.How easily can the hydrocarbon release a halogen ion(Cl, F) into the atmosphere i.e., how unstable the hydrocarbon is.(halogens react with Ozone to deplete it).

So now to answer your question, HFCs are so stable that they literally release 0 fluorine ions. Instead they remain in the atmosphere for longer time and absorb much radiation.  HCFCs are less stable compared to HFCs so Vice versa.

PS: Florine atoms are small hence less repulsions in HFC and hence are stable. Hope you can see through it now.

cot_ainok, Amarbabu and 2 others like this

MicroRNA :blush:

Naadan_Parinda, Tetsuko and 2 others like this

An MP who is not minister is a private member. So members of ruling party can table a private member's bill. Secondly, It doesn't require presidential assent before being tabled.

Neyawn, Tetsuko and 2 others like this

Can anyone please explain how to solve such questions

(UPSC 2010)

from the point of view of evolution, which one of the following is the correct sequence -

a) Otter- Tortoise- Shark

b) shark- tortoise- otter

c) tortoise- shark-otter


same question in 2009 also-

this time the options are different

a) octopus- dolphin- shark

b) pangolin- tortoise- hawk

c) salamander- python- kangaroo

d) frog- crab- prawn

Is answer for PYQ 2010 - (b), PYQ 2009 - (c) ?

@capricornape, yes. 
How did you identify it?

@AlexanderSupertramp - I used the simple logic that life 1st started in water. Thereafter amphibians would come, then land animals. 

Similarly, for the 2009 question, a more complex being should come at last (i.e. Kangaroo).

I don't know if this will hold true for all questions, but I know that UPSC will not always attack your rote memory but also test your common sense. 

AlexanderSupertramp, Agog and 1 others like this

This isn’t a previous year question.But what should be the answer to this question?

Which of the following correctly defines Fiscal Deficit?

(a)Excess of total expenditure over revenue receipts and non-debt creating capital receipts

(b)Borrowings from RBI, abroad as well as net borrowing at home

(c)Excess of government’s total expenditure over total receipts

(d)Both (a) and (b)

In my opinion, the answer should be (a). But the answer key says (d).

D hi sahi h. Budget Deficit concept was discarded after S Chakraborty etc pointed out that it was including borrowings too which was nothing but the amount taken by govt to bridge the gap between it's expenditure and revenue. So FD came which is both A and B technically. 

Tetsuko, GreenArrow and 1 others like this
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