Doubt Clearance Thread: UPSC 2021 - ForumIAS

Doubt Clearance Thread: UPSC 2021

The alluvial soil in the area has come as a blessing for the demolition process as it did not transmit vibrations caused when the structures hit the floor...

https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/kerala/buildings-will-come-down-safely-experts/article30517028.ece

Can somebody please explain which property of alluvial soil helps here? 


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The alluvial soil in the area has come as a blessing for the demolition process as it did not transmit vibrations caused when the structures hit the floor...

https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/kerala/buildings-will-come-down-safely-experts/article30517028.ece

Can somebody please explain which property of alluvial soil helps here? 


Can anyone with Geography optional clarify this please ?

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The alluvial soil in the area has come as a blessing for the demolition process as it did not transmit vibrations caused when the structures hit the floor...

https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/kerala/buildings-will-come-down-safely-experts/article30517028.ece

Can somebody please explain which property of alluvial soil helps here? 


Can anyone with Geography optional clarify this please ?

My optional is not Geography but I think the reason is interstitial spaces. Alluvial soil is less dense with more space between two grains of soil. So any impact will be absorbed by air molecules between the particles. The logic is similar to why jumps are made into sand pits or a boxing bag has sand.. if it was clay which is very dense then the impact will be transfered to the object hitting on it. 

I think it won't be density but porosity in that case. 

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Global Electricity Grid: is it a viable proposition given that it's very difficult to integrate renewable sources with coal generated power ? 

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Global Electricity Grid: is it a viable proposition given that it's very difficult to integrate renewable sources with coal generated power ? 

The plan is only to integrate renewable sources for which India has sought funding. 

Solar resources are geographically dispersed. How it would be viable

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Global Electricity Grid: is it a viable proposition given that it's very difficult to integrate renewable sources with coal generated power ? 

The plan is only to integrate renewable sources for which India has sought funding. 

Solar resources are geographically dispersed. How it would be viable

Transmission losses would be a concern. 

Yes, that was the concern I had wrt viability. 

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In the interest of more fairness in the procedure, the Supreme Court on Tuesday held that the Parliament should think over having an independent and permanent body to decide disqualification petitions against MPs and MLAs, instead of the Speaker retaining exclusive powers.

Doesn't this question  the office of Speaker and the fact that impartiality is the edifice of the post??

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In the interest of more fairness in the procedure, the Supreme Court on Tuesday held that the Parliament should think over having an independent and permanent body to decide disqualification petitions against MPs and MLAs, instead of the Speaker retaining exclusive powers.

Doesn't this question  the office of Speaker and the fact that impartiality is the edifice of the post??

@Neyawn  - Can you throw some light on this ?

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In the interest of more fairness in the procedure, the Supreme Court on Tuesday held that the Parliament should think over having an independent and permanent body to decide disqualification petitions against MPs and MLAs, instead of the Speaker retaining exclusive powers.

Doesn't this question  the office of Speaker and the fact that impartiality is the edifice of the post??

@neyawn - Can you throw some light on this ?

@Neyawn your views please

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Rewl1said

@upsc2020 There is a starc difference between what is supposed to be and what actually is. The Speaker even after election remains a member of a political party. There have been various instances where speaker has taken decision very swiftly and sometimes too sternly . There have also been instances where the Speaker has not acted on petitions of disqualification . 


Thanks 

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Are legislative councils required at states? Should they be abolished? In light of recent move by AP govt, what are your views?

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Did mastery over agriculture act as a leverage for the rise of the Harappan towns and cities??? Discuss

Agricultural productivity is a pre-condition for rise of any civilization. IVC centered around agriculture. They developed tools, wheels, used animals so that agriculture could get an impetus. Granaries were built to keep the surplus or use it for export.

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White Spot Syndrome Virus, recently in news, is known to affect

A. Pigs

B. Birds 

C. Marine Life 

D. Dogs

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Does either mean both or any one?

Vision question and one of the option was this;

“Proclamation for the continuation of the emergency must be approved by either house of the parliament”

I googled and it seems like both(any one andbothare correct)

Could someone please clarify? Thanks.


Either means any one of the two. Proclamation has to be approved by RS or LS = either RS or LS

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Will a different time zone be beneficial for the north-eastern states?

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With banks profitability at all time low, increase in insurance limit is likely to increase the operating expenses of the banks. Is the move likely to benefit investors? Can somebody explain

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With banks profitability at all time low, increase in insurance limit is likely to increase the operating expenses of the banks. Is the move likely to benefit investors? Can somebody explain

The increase in insurance limit will increase the operating expenses of the banks as they will have to pay more insurance premium. This will impact the profitability of banks.

But the measure will boost confidence among investors since they will have a belief that their money is safe with bank. 

Legit. Thanks

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@GreenArrow Ok let's break this down. 

44th Amendment introduced A. 352(3) wherein it introduced that the President shall declare no proclamation unless the same has been given to him in writing by the Union Cabinet.
352(4): Every proclamation before being passed is presented before each House of Parliament, that is the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha BOTH. Both the houses need to give the assent. If within the period of 1 month the proclamation is not assented to by both the houses, then it ceases to operate. 
Both the houses need to pass with such majority as is required for amending the constitution, i.e. not less than 2/3rd majority of the member present and voting, in each house. This is the constitutional position. 

Now, the line in Laxmikant with reference to the constitution  -Every resolution approving the proclamation must be passed by either House of Parliament. Here it means Both the LS & RS. 


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@prelims2020 All inflations are measured on basis of a set basket of goods.
In simple words
CPI inflation just measures the inflation rate of consumer price goods. How much extra you have to spend to buy the same goods you purchased last year.
Retail inflation does the same thing except it also takes rent, interest rates,mortgage student loans housing etc etc into consideration thus giving a clear picture.
Mostly RPI will be higher than CPI :)


Are you sure? Is this definition of Retail inflation provided for by RBI?

As per my understanding - CPI tracks the change in retail prices of goods and services which households purchase for their daily consumption. So it should be the same thing, I think

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@prelims2020 All inflations are measured on basis of a set basket of goods.
In simple words
CPI inflation just measures the inflation rate of consumer price goods. How much extra you have to spend to buy the same goods you purchased last year.
Retail inflation does the same thing except it also takes rent, interest rates,mortgage student loans housing etc etc into consideration thus giving a clear picture.
Mostly RPI will be higher than CPI :)


As per this article, Consumer Price Index or CPI as it is commonly called is an index measuring retail inflation in the economy by collecting the change in prices of most common goods and services.

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@upsc2020 Hi, I don’t know RBI definition, but this is what the term generally means :) Yes, you are right RPI like CPI is based on a set basket of goods. But the difference between 2 arises when you define what that set of basket of goods comprises of.
Here is a more clear explanation:

https://www.investopedia.com/terms/r/rpi.asp

That article which you mentioned, says that CPI measures the retail inflation. However, the article mentions the term ‘retail’ because it’s most widely used term when we define CPI. In other words, WPI measures wholesale goods and CPI measures retail inflation. That is because WPI and CPI are most widely used indexes. 

However, RPI and CPI are only different when it comes to what ‘basket of goods’ consist of. CPI doesn’t include cost of housing (cost of housing is different from housing as it consists of mortgage and interest rates) while RPI does. :)



PS:

I read the OPs question again, 

CPI measures retail inflation. Retail inflation and CPI are used interchangeably. However, RPI and CPI are not. :)


That's interesting. Thanks !!

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mastusaid

For the last session question the wikipedia says 24 jan 1950. 

Can you please elaborate?

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question 27 answer .

The special committee to examine the draft constitution was headed by jawahral nehru ?

but it given that this committee chiarmen was dr, rajendra prasad

This committee was headed by Alladi Krishnaswamy Ayar. Not Prasad or Nehru. 


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Hey anyone joined Forumias prelim classes?I am thinking to join it in online mode.Can anyone share his/her review.

@Patrick_jane Could you please help here? Thank you. 


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@12432TrivendrumRajdhani 

1. Focus on trends and boxes. Do not read it line by line. 

2. Try to read a chapter a day. One should not try to finish the entire ES in one go. 

3. Vol 2 is more Mains centric - esp from chapters starting with Agriculture. Read so that you can inculcate points in answers. Multiple readings help here. 

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Spocksaid

Is salinity a condition required for formation of coral reefs?

Also, isn't 27-33% salinity just excessive!?

Salinity is an important condition for growth of coral reefs, because it helps in calcification and forming the calcium and carbonate shells. 

It isn't excessive; had that been the case we would have had corals near fresh water areas also.

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Anonsaid

what is the difference between Major non-NATO Ally and NATO ally 

and what is the status that India has been recently granted?

Thanks for help

Major Non NATO Ally is a designation given by the U.S. government to exceptionally close allies who have strong strategic working relationships with American forces but are not members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

NATO Ally -member country of NATO

India's status - Not a Major Non NATO Ally - https://thediplomat.com/2019/08/no-india-isnt-a-major-non-nato-ally-of-the-united-states/

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How to use ncerts to its maximum for UPSC cse i.e. how to do R&D of NCERTs

And how to prepare ancient and mediaeval history effectively.


Old and New NCERTS are sufficient for ancient and medieval history. 

How to read: it varies from subject to subject. For history, re- reading the chapter and marking out important facts should be the strategy. 

You could make short notes / summary of the facts for revision so that you do not have to read the entire book before exam. 

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Is it important to read draft proposals and laws for prelims? I guess they aren't as important as they are in the draft stage?

No, it isn't important. Helps in mains answer writing. 

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FCsaid

The Appropriation Bill passed recently allows funds to be sanctioned from the Consolidated Fund. My doubt is that the when the Budget is of Rs 30 lac crore (approx), why is the Appropriation Bill of Rs 110 lac cr. What else does the appropriation bill include other than the budgeted expense for next yr ?

It includes both non-votable and votable expenditures. Expenditures of the government, such as repayment of public debts, expenses incurred by the judiciary, etc. are not generally voted on by the Parliament, and these expenses are charged on the Consolidated Fund of India, as per Article 112(3).

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Can anyone explaintriffins dilemma?

It means that a central bank like RBI cannot manage current account, exchange rate and monetary policy all together. By management here, we mean, in economics everything is linked, and taking an independent stand by not affecting the other is difficult. 

It's basically a conflict of economic interests that arises between short-term domestic and long-term international objectives for countries whose currencies serve as global reserve currencies. For example, Dollar. 


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If art 32 were to be suspended during an emergency , how could one move court against infringement of art 20,21?

Article 226:  High Court has the power to issue writs including the writs of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, quo warranto, and certiorari or any of them for the enforcement of the rights. 

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what is the iucn status for Pygmy Hog 

Is it CR or En ?

Critically Endangered

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The extent of wildlife protection act in all of india except j&k. So after abrogation of article 370 does WPA extents to J&K

It has to be notified by the government first. I presume, that hasn't been done. 

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Nikesaid

Can someone clarify if Chandrabhaga beach, Odisha was a holder of blue flag certification back in 2018. The tag is renewed every year. There is no mention of an Indian beach in 2019. 


If a statement is there in the exam that- no Indian beach has ever received a blue flag certification or conversely that- previously, an Indian beach received the certification. What shall be the answer?

Chandrabhaga has the blue flag certificate. 

No indian beach statement : Wrong 

Previously, indian beach statement: Right

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Does the dispute between center and union territory come under the original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court?

Yes, it comes under original jurisdiction 

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@Incognito  I think not.
As per article 131, the original jurisdiction of supreme court extends to-
1)between the Government of India and one or more States; or
2) between the Government of India and any State or States on one side and one or more other States on the other; or
3) between two or more States

and "union" territories are essentially union's territories so dispute between union and union territories doesn't make much sense. 

UTs do not have their independent HCs. So any HC having original jurisdiction is unlikely 

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When the Chief Justice of a High Court acts in an administrative capacity, he is subject to


a) the writ jurisdiction of any of the other judges of the High Court
b) special control exercised by the Chief Justice of India
c) discretionary powers of the Government of the State
d) special powers provided to the Chief Minister in this regard

Source : CSE 1996

Answer is C.

As per Article 227 (3), the Chief Justice of High Court when acting in an administrative capacity, any rule made by him shall not be inconsistent with the provision of any law in force, and shall require the previous approval of the Governor.

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Q1)1st one to impose censorship was Lord Wellesley through the Censorship of Press Act, 1799)

The first ban on press in India was implemented during who's tenure ?


Q2)Which Governor General restored the State of Oudh to the son of Wajid Ali Shah ie Birjis Qadr ?


Censorship Act by Wellesley in 1799 was the first. 

Birjis was sent to exile to Nepal. Oudh wasn't restored. 

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Hey can someone suggest any video lecture for medieval part, though m following Satish chandra !!

Satish Chandra is more than sufficient. Are you having trouble in memorizing facts from there

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@upsc2020 yes , actually m unable to connect facts and hence doing mistakes while solving ......any suggestion for it .  


Are you giving Prelims this year ?

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@upsc2020 yes , actually m unable to connect facts and hence doing mistakes while solving ......any suggestion for it .  


If 2020 - avoid reading a new topic. Do selective reading of important topics - Culture & Religious Movements.

2021 - make your own shorthand notes from Ncert. 

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1. Well, cattles were not found on any seal from IVC. (which was the basis on which I chose the option)
2. Didn't watch any movie on Harappa.
3. Agriculture & ate meat, which probably points that they knew about cattle.
I think you want me to think in this direction... but doesn't this contradict 1st point??


Cattle was found: Ncert 12th standard. 

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1. Well, cattles were not found on any seal from IVC. (which was the basis on which I chose the option)
2. Didn't watch any movie on Harappa.
3. Agriculture & ate meat, which probably points that they knew about cattle.
I think you want me to think in this direction... but doesn't this contradict 1st point??



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BGPsaid

Which of the following limit(s) the Sovereignty of the Indian Parliament?

1. Written nature of the Constitution

2. Federal system of government

3. System of judicial review

4. Directive Principles of State Policy

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1, 2 and 3 only

(b) 2 and 4 only

(c) 3 only

(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4


The answer given is A  --Reason for exclusion of DPSP isNon-justiciable  and hence doesn't limit sovereignty of Parliament.

But DPSP are also used as reference by court for constitutional validity of law. Also DPSP are the ideals which parliament should keep in mind while formulating laws. Then in my opinion it is limiting the sovereignty of parliament. 

Am i Wrong? 

The non justiciability and non enforceable nature of DPSP is the cause. 

Directive Principles of State Policy are just theguidelinesgiven to the central and State Governments of India, to be kept in mind while framing laws and policies. 

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Was IVC a matriarchal society ?

There are no conclusive evidences about IVC proving it was patriarchal/matriarchal society. Correct me, If I am wrong. 

No conclusive evidence found about social structure. However,conclusions derived from John Marshall's writings are that society was matriarchal. 

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Cm of Delhi appointed by prez

Cm of jk appointed by governor

Correct?

Delhi - President.


J&K has a Lt. Governor not a CM. 

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"Appreciation in the real exchange rate have contributed to the declining exports to GDP ratio in recent times."

Can someone please explain this?


According to NCERT Real Exchange Rate = Nominal exchange rate * (Price of commodity in Foreign in Domestic Market / Price of commodity in Domestic Market)

This is from the Survey right ? You need to view this statement the table that follows. 

Appreciation has been due to an outcome of increasing integration of India’s exports with global value chain. The integration with the global value chain has increased following a relatively higher growth in manufacturing exports.

Are you clear with REER? Let me know if the concept isn't clear. 

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Yes , according to this act, as and when the CM will be there, he/she will be appointed by the LG.

Currently there's no CM. LG has been appointed by President.

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simulator 1, question number 57, option c which is marked to be correct.

it states that- "If any person is convicted of an offence of bribery, he/she shall be disqualified from voting at any electionfor a period of six years''. 

however the disqualification rpa, 1951 talks about is for contesting the elections and not for voting. Is the question wrong or am i missing something here?



Can you share the question please

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@upsc2020 Q.57) For elections/nomination to the
Parliament, which of the following is correct?
a) A retired Chief Justice of India cannot be
nominated by the President to the Rajya Sabha.
b) A candidate fielded by a recognized political
party does not need any proposer to file his
nomination for Lok Sabha election.
c) If any person is convicted of an offence of
bribery, he/she shall be disqualified from
voting at any election for a period of six years.
d) All of the above statements are incorrect.


solution provided-Exp) Option a is incorrect. Nomination to Rajya Sabha requires a person to have special knowledge or
practical experience in matters like literature, science, art and social service. Recently, retired Chief Justice of
India, Ranjan Gogoi has been nominated to the Rajya Sabha.
Option b is incorrect. A candidate filing for candidature needs one proposer from his/ her constituency
when the candidate belongs to a recognized national or State party.
Option c is correct. A candidate gets six year of disqualification if he/ she gets convicted for an offence of
bribery under Representation of People’s Act 1951.


I think statement c is erroneous. It's not related to the question. 

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whether office of 'whip' is mentioned in any statute or its just a parliamentry convention?


as per laxmikant----  its covention

in one of the test series-- it has statutory status

Additional info: https://forumias.com/post/detail/Mandatory-whip-1583731142

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Q40 of SFT#9: Kindly refer the below mentioned statement.

I think the act is silent about one tenth criteria, rather it was the speaker of Lok Sabha who gave this criteria. Please clarify the doubt.

Statement 1 is correct. The Salary and Allowances of Leaders of Opposition in Parliament Act, 1977 defines LoP as the leader of the largest opposition party having not less than one-tenth seats of the total the strength of the House 

Please share the Question.

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Both statements are correct, IMO. 

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Both statements are correct, IMO. 

Yes, answer is both correct . Can you shed more light on secular aspect of OBC as there were evidences of Great bath @Mohenjodaro which was most probably used for religious ceremonies.

Great Bath was used for Religious ceremony is an inference historians have made. No temple has been found. Cannot attribute to any religion, this secular. 

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SF6  has a lifetime of 3200 yrs , then why it is under short lived climate pollutants ?? 

SF6 is short lived in the atmosphere. The shelf life when used along with some other substance is higher as it is stable and inert. 

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Can someone please explain?

Answer is C.


Statement 1 is wrong because oceanic crust is continuously formed due to process of subduction and seafloor spreading. Which is why they are younger than continental crust 

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What is in 5th schedule which have bearing on education except the fact that there should be tribes advisory council and safeguard interest of scheduled Tribes and administer scheduled areas.

W.r.t. 6th schedule, there is specific mention about creation, construction and management of primary schools.

:blush:

@Amarbabu I have discussed a similar question in PYQ thread. The explanation there is elaborate.

https://forumias.com/post/detail/Previous-Year-Questions-60-Days-Mission-1585383124?JSwzQFgsM0RgCmAK

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The doubt in this is ?

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I have doubt w.r.to. option 3. The dispute b/w GoI and UT like NCT of Delhi gone to SC and in case of Puducherry in Madras HC, are these not come under original jurisdiction of SC, though Laxmikant doesn't have that mention.

The High Court stands at the head of a State's judicial administration. There are 24 High Courts in the country, three having jurisdiction over more than one State. Among the Union Territories Delhi alone has a High Court of its own. Other six Union Territories come under the jurisdiction of different State High Courts.


Now, wrt to the issue with Delhi's case: SC refused to straightaway hear the original suit filed by the Delhi government against the Centre under the article 131 seeking a declaration of changed status from union territory to a state for Delhi.

The bench wanted to delay the hearing because it wanted to hear it along with the Delhi government’s appeal against the Delhi high court’s judgment on August 4 which held that Delhi’s status was that of a union territory.

So first it has to go to HC. SC doesn't have original jurisdiction. 

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The doubt here is?

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Which act started the process of decentralisation? Isnt it Indian councils act 1861? 

Yes, 1861. The Governments of Bombay and Madras were given the power of nominating Advocate-General and not less than 4 and not more than 8 additional members of the Executive council for purpose of legislation.

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Is there a difference between fiscal deficit and budget deficit?

Yes, there is a difference. 

A budget deficit occurs when a country spends greater than the revenue they receive. In totality. 

Fiscal deficit= Budget deficit (=total Expenditure minus total income) +market borrowings (=through Government securities (G-Sec)/Bond) +other liabilities (e.g. pension and provident to be given in future).

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@upsc2020 hey thanks boss :) In one of the test series one option was "Indian councils act 1861 started the process of decentralisation of administrative power in British India" and the answer key stated it is wrong :) No explanation provided :)

It could have been a typo error. Spectrum also States that 1861 started decentralization. 

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tamtarsaid

Hello Guys,

I hope the preparations going good.

I had a small doubt regarding how to prepare missile, weapon system, etc for Prelims.

Should I by-heart every missile, weapon system and related details of developed or purchased in the last 1 year? What kinda question UPSC ask about them?


I would recommend that you stick to the ones which have been in news. It would work for both CSE and CAPF. You don't have to learn every detail - Range , Nuclear Capability , Type , Collab with any other country if applicable  should suffice. 


 

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» show previous quotes

I would recommend that you stick to the ones which have been in news. It would work for both CSE and CAPF. You don't have to learn every detail - Range , Nuclear Capability , Type , Collab with any other country if applicable  should suffice. 


 

For example - India successfully test-fired K-4 submarine-launched nuclear capable missile. 

You should know - 

Range

Nuclear ? 

Arihant ? 

Part of Nuclear triad ( what's nuclear triad you should be clear )

Other SLBM ? Sagarika - difference 



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Functions of stomata in plants: Stomata in plants absorb carbon dioxide and release oxygen for photosynthesis. Stomata helps respiration in plants by absorbing oxygen and releasing carbon dioxide

Does stomata perform both the functions?

Yes, stomata performs both the functions.

Stomata allow for gas exchange acting as an entryway for carbon dioxide and releasing the Oxygen that we breath. 

Plants get oxygen from the air through the stomata. Respiration takes place in the mitochondria of the cell in the presence of oxygen, which is called "aerobic respiration". In plants, there are two types of respiration: dark respiration and photo respiration. The first kind occurs in the presence or absence of light, while the second occurs exclusively in the presence of light.

The other main function is regulating water movement through transpiration.

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The sole decision making authority to decide the procedure and practices to be followed in the court vests with the Supreme Court.

Is it T or F?

True. Under the Constitution - A.145 , the Supreme Court is given the authority to frame Rules for regulating the practice and procedure of the Court.


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Forest landscape restoration (FLR) under Bonn Challenge in India is implemented by whom ? 

Union ministry of environment forest and climate change?

It is MOEFCC.  Flagship project will be implemented during a pilot phase of three-and-a-half years in the five pilot states of Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Nagaland and Karnataka. This will eventually be scaled up across the country.

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Hello friends.

Can i cover c.a from forum factly coz i couldn't read hindu in past 2 months.

I also read vision mag.

Please tell..

While the compilations are no substitute to the newspaper, it will suffice for prelims. From a mains perspective, gather the good Editorials post Prelims to read for Mains answers. 

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1. Is Right to property legal right  or constitutional right?
2. Is Right to vote legal right or constitutional right?

What will be the answers for above questions as per UPSC answer key?

1. Right to Property - Constitutional Right under Article 300A of the Indian Constitution.

2. Right to vote - Constitutional Right according to CSE  2017 UPSC Key. 

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Can anyone please explain how to solve such questions

(UPSC 2010)

from the point of view of evolution, which one of the following is the correct sequence -

a) Otter- Tortoise- Shark

b) shark- tortoise- otter

c) tortoise- shark-otter

d)shark-otter-tortoise



same question in 2009 also-

this time the options are different

a) octopus- dolphin- shark

b) pangolin- tortoise- hawk

c) salamander- python- kangaroo

d) frog- crab- prawn

Ok so the only way which I have figured out to deal with these questions is through the standard evolution diagram given in every science/geo book. 


This question we had discussed on PYQ thread as well: https://forumias.com/post/detail/Previous-Year-Questions-60-Days-Mission-1585383124?JSwzPFAtUzhgCmAK


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This isn’t a previous year question.But what should be the answer to this question?


Which of the following correctly defines Fiscal Deficit?

(a)Excess of total expenditure over revenue receipts and non-debt creating capital receipts

(b)Borrowings from RBI, abroad as well as net borrowing at home

(c)Excess of government’s total expenditure over total receipts

(d)Both (a) and (b)


In my opinion, the answer should be (a). But the answer key says (d).

Answer would be D. Fiscal deficit is essentially a measure of how much the government needs to borrow from the market to meet its expenditure when its resources are inadequate. So while option a is the technical definition, option b defines what forms the FD. 

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Does the privatisation or merger of Public sector units require parliamentary nod?

The merger of public sector banks require parliamentary nod, mainly because they have been established under parliamentary acts. Similarly, can we say that the merger of Public sector enterprises also requires parliamentary nod for those established under an act of parliament?


I suppose it requires parliamentary approval when there is a legislation pre-existing to have nationalised it. In case of BPCL, government had repealed the legislation that had nationalised the company, doing away with the need to seek Parliament nod before selling it off to private and foreign firms.

It's my inference. Would request others to share their thoughts as well.

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Mutualdelegation of functions:

Is there any example of President entrusting with the consent of SG  executive function of centre and Parliament entrusting the same without consent of SG??


I do not understand the question. Could you please elaborate?

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Is there any example of the same where Parliament has entrusted executive function of the centre to states without its consent?



Ok so, when a state government refuses to implement a law or an executive order of the Centre that it is expected to enforce, the Centre can resort to action under Article 258. 

1.The Centre had asked all states to set up at least one detention centre for illegal migrants/ foreigners, so that they can be housed for longer periods and traced easily when deportation is legally ordered. Powers to deport illegally staying foreign nationals have been entrusted under Article 258 (1) of the Constitution to state governments.

2. Central Government has claimed in past that the NRC rules are derived from Article 258(1) of the Constitution.





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@GreenArrow @Yo_Yo_Choti_Singh @upsc2020    two doubts:

1.Even in the interest of maintaining ‘public order’, a person can be detained under preventive detention laws. is it true?

2.The CDS cannot recommend Union Defence Ministry about the defence procurement from foreign countries. Is it False?

please help.

1. National Security Act of 1980 permits arrest and detention of persons when it is in the interest of maintaining “public order”, which can occur even without any allegations of the person breaking any existing laws.


2. Not sure. Draft Defence Procurement Procedure 2020 was released. The CDS had made comments on it. Binding or not binding- not sure. 

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19. Consider the following statements about the GRIHA (Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment):
1. GRIHA Council is a technical and certification body under the Bureau of Energy Efficiency.
2. GRIHA certified green buildings can get the interest subsidy for its housing loan.
3. GRIHA certification is not mandatory for thermal power stations.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 2 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

plz help

A.

GRIHA Council is an independent platform(registered as a society) for the interaction on scientific and administrative issues related to sustainable habitats in the Indian context. It was founded by The Energy and Resources Institute(TERI) with support from the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy(MNRE) along with a variety of experts in the fields related to sustainability of built environment from across the country. GRIHA Council promotes GRIHA(Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment)- the National Rating System as a design and evaluation tool for green buildings and habitats.

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Subbusaid

Official UPSC Key says the Answer is A. Any justification pls? I am sure this question would have been already discussed in forum but dont know how to find the discussion. If you can please let me know how to find it, even that would be helpful.

Thanks

In my opinion, Amount of taxes collected by a government to the amount of income that country receives for its products is the tax to GDP Ratio.That income is measured in terms of the gross domestic product, or GDP. Therefore a decrease in Tax to GDP can indicate slowing economic growth.


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Central Issue Price is decided by Cabinet Committee on Eco. Affairs or Ministry of Consumer Affairs? 

Dept of  Food and Public Distribution under Ministry of Consumer Affairs. 

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this is from Ramesh Singh. Do t-bills serve as CRR requirements? Isnt it supposed to be maintained only in cash form with rbi ? Please clarify. 

T-Bill serve as a part of SLR, not CRR.

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Did Ambedkar oppose the inclusion of the term socialist in the preamble?


November 1948: Prof. K.T Shah, representing Bihar had proposed the following amendment.

“India shall be a Secular, Federal, Socialist Union of States.”

Ambedkar opposed the amendment. Secularism was inherent to the Constitution’s structure and he felt that mentioning it in the preamble would be redundant.

Shah also made a strong case for the inclusion of socialism.

Ambedkar turned down the proposal by explaining his understanding of the Constitution. He felt that it was a mechanism for the purpose of regulating the work of various organs of the state. Building on this understanding, Ambedkar said: “What should be the policy of the State, how the Society should be organised in its social and economic side are matters which must be decided by the people themselves according to time and circumstances. It cannot be laid down in the Constitution itself, because that is destroying democracy altogether." He added then that some of the directive principles in the Constitution are socialist in their direction.

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@upsc2020 was secular term originally present in the constitution?

No. Added by 42nd amendment in the preamble.

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@upsc2020 was secular term originally present in the constitution?

 I think it was present in the 'constitution' before the 42nd aa. The word has been mentioned in Article 25 (2). 

However in the 'preamble' it was added by 42nd aa. 

You're right. Missed that entirely. The brain is so used to the question that secular was added to preamble. Thank you !


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tamtarsaid

Higher education in India starts from which standard?

8th std onwards OR 12th std onwards?

The school system in India has four levels: lower primary (age 6 to 10), upper primary (11 and 12), high (13 to 15) and higher secondary (17 and 18). T

he lower primary school is divided into five “standards”, upper primary school into two, high school into three and higher secondary into two.

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Is the 2020 budget practically cancelled? Do we have to study it like any other budget? I mean the pandemic requires complete reallocation right?>

Safe side - study like any other budget. Re-allocations are an internal exercise not subject to Parliamentary approval. 

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Under which Act do people of Puducherry have voting rights in France and are allowed to carry a French passport?  

? Not possible for Indian citizens. 

A treaty giving back the French colony of Pondicherry to India was signed in August 1962. According to the treaty, people living in Pudu were given a six-month period to claim French citizenship. 




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Under which Act do people of Puducherry have voting rights in France and are allowed to carry a French passport?  

? Not possible for Indian citizens. 

A treaty giving back the French colony of Pondicherry to India was signed in August 1962. According to the treaty, people living in Pudu were given a six-month period to claim French citizenship. 




So, they are like any other foreigners living in India?

Yes..

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Agogsaid

Has vision full length pre test sm unexpected ques eg senna sepctabilis,salmonella bacteria etc or nly me finding it odd??sm1 plz clarify.

There's nothing odd. Everyone's expecting questions on diseases and pathogens in Prelims this year. One cannot know all, restrict to the list in NCERT. 

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Agogsaid

@upsc2020 can plz provide snapshot of the same i.e.Ncert list of pathogens and disease??


Please refer to these chapters. It should suffice. Also in our 10000 Question thread, we have practiced many such questions. 


http://ncert.nic.in/NCERTS/l/lebo108.pdf

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Agogsaid

@upsc2020 Thnx a tonne.Wht abt list of such species lik sena spectabilis??


I did not cover such species ever. One can't learn everything. NCERT + News. If at all a question about these is asked in UPSC, you will be able to eliminate mostly. If you can share the question, let me see if there's an easy way to solve it. 

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Agogsaid

Was unable 2 solve either!

I would have not attempted Senna Question as I too was unaware. Upon some digging I found that it was in news in September. Invasive species. Was covered in the Hindu. 

Pheratophytes is covered in NCERT, also it has been asked in CAPF last year or 2018.

Therefore, my advice would be to limit to newspaper and ncert. One cannot get all 100 right. Don't worry. What is not from these two sources, hardly anyone would get it right.

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Agogsaid

@upsc2020 i need ncert link/pdf of chapter wher pheratophyte s given plz.


Sorry confused with my Bio text of class 12th. Not available in NCERT. 

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Anonsaid


B - Tea

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Hello!

Could someone please explain the Buddhist concepts ofPavaranaandUposatha?

The ritual of Pavarana marks the end of the three months rain retreat or vassavasa that generally starts in July. During these three months period, the monks don't travel and stay in a Monastery. Pavarana is the closing ceremony of this retreat. Thus, it is the end of their stay within the confines of the monastery. According to scriptures, the monks could confess on Pavarana about mistakes/sins they made at monastery during the three-month rain retreat.

Uposatha day is the day of observance. The monks come together primarily on full moon night and reiterate the rules of monastic order.

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Agogsaid

Whts the difference between Central Ground Water Authority and Central Ground Water Board??

Central Ground Water Board (CGWB), is a multi-disciplinary scientific organization of the Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation. It is the National Apex Agency entrusted with the responsibilities of providing scientific inputs for management, exploration, monitoring, assessment, augmentation and regulation of ground water resources of the country. Central Ground Water Board was established in 1970 by renaming the Exploratory Tube wells Organization under the Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India. It was merged with the Ground Water Wing of the Geological Survey of India during 1972.

Central Ground Water Authority has been constituted under Section 3 (3) of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 to regulate and control development and management of ground water resources in the country.

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Consider the following statements regarding loss of Citizenship in India:

1. The Constitution does not provide any grounds for loss of Indian citizenship of a person. 

2. The Central Government can terminate Indian citizenship of a citizen who has shown disloyalty towards the Constitution.


Regarding statement 2, Central govt can deprive only for naturalised and registered citizens, right? So if there is a statement like #2 in exam, which POV should we consider? 

Thanks :)

Statement 2 is correct. POV regd?

Citizenship can be deprived under the following:

Subject to the provisions of this section, the Central Government may, by order, deprive any such citizen of Indian citizenship, if it is satisfied that-


(a) the registration or certificate of naturalization was obtained by means of fraud, false representation or the concealment of any material fact; or


(b) that citizen has shown himself by act or speech to be disloyal or disaffected towards the Constitution of India as by law established; or


(c) that citizen has, during any war in which India may be engaged, unlawfully traded or communicated with an enemy or been engaged in, or associated with, any business that was to his knowledge carried on in such manner as to assist an enemy in that war; or


(d) that citizen has, within five years after registration or naturalization, been sentenced in any country to imprisonment for a term of not less than two years; or


(e) that citizen has been ordinarily resident, out of India for a continuous period of seven years, and during that period, has neither been at any time a student of any educational institution in a country outside India or in the service of a Government in India or of an international organization of which India is a member, not registered annually in the prescribed manner at an Indian consulate his intention to retain his citizenship of India.

https://www.advocatekhoj.com/library/bareacts/citizenship/10.phpTitle=Citizenship%20Act,%201955&STitle=Deprivation%20of%20citizenship

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Rewl1said

How is Tamil Nadu class 12 for modern Indian history ?

Has some facts not consistent with NCERT. Should be avoided.

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@upsc2020 Hey hello sir, long time no see? :) Hope you are doing well :)
Actually govt can only deprive citizenship, right? They cant terminate it on grounds of disloyalty?
And also, this deprivation of citizenship applies only to naturalised and registered citizens, correct?



Hi, I am good. Hope you have been well :)


1. Citizenship is terminated either by renunciation or acquisition of citizenship of another country.

2. Deprivation on the grounds stated above.

So yes, in that case Statement 2 is wrong. 

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Hi can someone please explain John Rawl's Contractualism in simple language ?

Contractarianism ? 

According to the theory of contractarianism, the moral and political principles we should follow are those which we would accept in a hypothetical contract. It is a scenario in which no moral or political principles have been accepted yet, and we need to find some of those principles. Solution could be agreed upon by contracting parties, starting from certain idealized positions for example equitable distribution of resources. 

For example consider bioethics. Ethics that govern it have no precedents but are shaped by morals and ethics of contracting parties. 

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Hi, @forumiasacademy 

SFG 2.0 Test 16, 3rd August

Please clarify following

Question 10

Statement 1. Sedimentary rocks are formed at earth's surface by the hydrological system.

The process should be weathering or erosion by agents ( which also include water) followed by deposition, settling and compaction.

Hydrologic system would include only one agent of weathering or erosion and not all. Also statement does not indicate settling and compaction which is necessary for sedimentation, and whole process is called lithification.

Hydrologic system is not mention in NCERT or wikipedia.


Question 29

Statement 1. Earth's interior underwent stratification which gave rise to a layered structure.

Word stratification is used for mainly sedimentary rocks. The layering of earth's exterior is specifically called "differentiation" due to density difference. 

Please clarify if we can use stratification


Question 32

Statement (a) Mass movements are aided by gravity.

There us difference between causative factor and aid factor. Gravity is one and only causative factor for mass movements. Aid would mean that mass movement can happen even without gravity, which is not true.

Similarly in question 9 

Which of the following can aid in physical weathering of a rock?

Word "aid" create confusion. Shouldn't it uses which of the following can cause physical weathering of a rock?


Thanks

q10:

Statement is correct. 

Sedimentary rocks are formed on the Earth’s surface by the hydrological system.

Formation involves: Weathering of preexisting rock, Transportation to a new site, Deposition of the eroded material, Lithification. Hydrological system includes all agents and their interrelated processes as well. 

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Hi, @forumiasacademy 

SFG 2.0 Test 16, 3rd August

Please clarify following

Question 10

Statement 1. Sedimentary rocks are formed at earth's surface by the hydrological system.

The process should be weathering or erosion by agents ( which also include water) followed by deposition, settling and compaction.

Hydrologic system would include only one agent of weathering or erosion and not all. Also statement does not indicate settling and compaction which is necessary for sedimentation, and whole process is called lithification.

Hydrologic system is not mention in NCERT or wikipedia.


Question 29

Statement 1. Earth's interior underwent stratification which gave rise to a layered structure.

Word stratification is used for mainly sedimentary rocks. The layering of earth's exterior is specifically called "differentiation" due to density difference. 

Please clarify if we can use stratification


Question 32

Statement (a) Mass movements are aided by gravity.

There us difference between causative factor and aid factor. Gravity is one and only causative factor for mass movements. Aid would mean that mass movement can happen even without gravity, which is not true.

Similarly in question 9 

Which of the following can aid in physical weathering of a rock?

Word "aid" create confusion. Shouldn't it uses which of the following can cause physical weathering of a rock?


Thanks

Q 29:

Stratification is arrangement into different groups or layers. The word stratification is correct here.

The stratification of Earth into its geologic layers was brought about by the formation of the Earth's iron core. The iron core was generated by a combination of radioactive decay and gravitation, which raised the temperature enough for molten iron to form. The migration of molten iron to the center of the Earth displaced the less dense materials toward the surface.

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Hi, @forumiasacademy 

SFG 2.0 Test 16, 3rd August

Please clarify following

Question 10

Statement 1. Sedimentary rocks are formed at earth's surface by the hydrological system.

The process should be weathering or erosion by agents ( which also include water) followed by deposition, settling and compaction.

Hydrologic system would include only one agent of weathering or erosion and not all. Also statement does not indicate settling and compaction which is necessary for sedimentation, and whole process is called lithification.

Hydrologic system is not mention in NCERT or wikipedia.


Question 29

Statement 1. Earth's interior underwent stratification which gave rise to a layered structure.

Word stratification is used for mainly sedimentary rocks. The layering of earth's exterior is specifically called "differentiation" due to density difference. 

Please clarify if we can use stratification


Question 32

Statement (a) Mass movements are aided by gravity.

There us difference between causative factor and aid factor. Gravity is one and only causative factor for mass movements. Aid would mean that mass movement can happen even without gravity, which is not true.

Similarly in question 9 

Which of the following can aid in physical weathering of a rock?

Word "aid" create confusion. Shouldn't it uses which of the following can cause physical weathering of a rock?


Thanks

The statement is correct. Gravity is the main force responsible for mass movements. 

An advise: I think you are reading too much into words. UPSC will also use common words randomly. And if you read too munch into it, you may end up attempting very less questions. 

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Agogsaid

@upsc2020 whts industrial discharge?Does solid waste covers it??

Solid Waste does not cover industrial discharge in my opinion. According to the SWM rules, 

1. Waste segregation at source is mandatory. Households are required to separate waste.

2. Manufacturers of FMCG that use non-biodegradable packaging are required to put in place a system to collect the packaging waste generated due to their production.

3. No non-recyclable waste having a calorific value of 1,500 Kcal/kg or more is permitted in landfills. These wastes should either be utilized for generating energy or for preparing refuse derived fuel. 

Industrial discharges usually end up in water streams and is not a part of Solid Waste. 

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This question is from a Vision Test. Answer given was 'D'. 

Shouldn.t it be 'B' as Option 2 should be correct ? 

Yes it should be B, unless the trigger for the Question by vision was the government’s recent order of setting up a Delimitation Commission for Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Assam and Nagaland. Vision is notorious for having such silly traps.

In all likelihood, should be B. 

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1. According to IMD,

Heat wave is considered if maximum temperature of a station reaches at least 40'C or more for Plains and at least 30'C or more for Hilly regions.

For Coastal Regions: When maximum temperature departure is 4.5'C or more from normal, Heat Wave may be described provided actual maximum temperature is 37'C or more.

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Agogsaid

@upsc2020 

  1. Snt coastal regions with 37 degrees temp declared as heat wave??Screenshot20200813-204001Foxit-PDF2731597334428.jpg
  2. Snt conservation reserves declared by state govt?Then whts ths 2nd line?https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conservation_reserves_and_community_reserves_of_India
  3. Buffalo meat cms under export prohibited goods as per Shankar??
  4. CIC not appointed by President warrant under his hand and seal?

3. India is one the largest exporters of Buffalo meat as per what I have read. 

4. Cic - no.

2. Didn't understand. 

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1. According to IMD,

Heat wave is considered if maximum temperature of a station reaches at least 40'C or more for Plains and at least 30'C or more for Hilly regions.

For Coastal Regions: When maximum temperature departure is 4.5'C or more from normal, Heat Wave may be described provided actual maximum temperature is 37'C or more.

Mentioned Coastal here. 

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MarcusAsaid

#notice2

Odd one out is true= eg

 With reference to Mian Tansen, which one of the following statements is not correct?

(a) Tansen was the title given to him by Emperor Akbar
(b) Tansen composed Dhrupads on Hindu gods and goddesses.
(c) Tansen composed songs on his patrons.
(d) Tansen invented many Ragas

only odd statement is A . other deal with songs and ragas

28. Which one of the following National Parks lies completely in the temperate alpine zone?
(a) Manas National Park
(b) Namdapha National Park
(c) Neora Valley National Park
(d) Valley of Flowers National Park

barring valley of flowers all other are in east/northeast




I think we should create separate thread.

yes, something like mcq elimination- tips and tricks. It would help in making a repository of all such tips at one place.

I think we can use

this https://forumias.com/post/detail/Prelims-2019-PYQ-elimination-techniques-1583573397

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Can state legislature change the jurisdiction and powers of HC?


No, according to Article 230: Parliament may by law extend the jurisdiction of a High Court to, or exclude the jurisdiction of a High Court from, any Union territory.

Wrt. To powers - Parliament and the state legislature cannot cut the powers and jurisdiction of the High Court as guaranteed by the Constitution.


1.3k views

Neyawnsaid

One quick questions for thinking people.

#1 Can a member of ruling party present a private member's bill? Is presidential permission needed for private members bill?

Yes. Any Member of Parliament who is not a minister in Union Cabinet is a private member and can present a PMB. Presidential permission is not required. 


In news in 2020: LS Speaker amended the 'Directions by Speaker', the guidelines to be followed by the presiding officer, to cap the private members' bills a member can introduce in a session. Capped at 3. 

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Now if a question comes in UPSC asking if ministers can be made a part of parliamentary committees. What do we consider?

First, such a statement is unlikely. 

Even if they ask, "Ministers can be made part of Parliamentary Committee" - then by itself this statement is correct. 

The statement would be wrong if it is framed in the following way - 

1. Union Ministers are members of all parliamentary committees.

2. Union Ministers are defacto members of all parliamentary committees. 

Hope this helps. 




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Hello! Could somebody please explain this question and its answer?


Q. Which of the following rivers doesnotform the boundary between India and Pakistan?

a) Jhelum

b) Chenab

c) Satluj

d) Ravi


Answer is (b).

Is it some test series Question? What exactly by forming boundary it means? All 4 are transboundary rivers. 


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Hello! Could somebody please explain this question and its answer?


Q. Which of the following rivers doesnotform the boundary between India and Pakistan?

a) Jhelum

b) Chenab

c) Satluj

d) Ravi


Answer is (b).

Is it some test series Question? What exactly by forming boundary it means? All 4 are transboundary rivers. 


Yes, it is. I don't know what the question means either.

Ignore the Question. Poorly framed in my opinion.

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@upsc2020 Our international boundary is parallel to the courses of the Sutlej, Jhelum and Ravi. Chenab only flows through it. But yes, I get what you mean. Thanks!


You see that on the map. In actuality, river is not a point. I am not too sure if that's a standard definition of a transboundary river. 

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A small doubt.. while solving test series we come across many questions about some plants or microbes which were in news in 2017 or so.

Is there a need to remember those? I mean CA from 2017 or 2018 which are being asked .

Yes, upsc has a thing for weird plants and microbes. If you have them covered from some newspaper or CA booklet, you'd remember it. Don't put an extra effort digging up all microbes. 

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mhs11said

Western ghats height increases or decreases from north to south?😅

The height of Western Ghats increases from north to south whereas height of Eastern Ghats increases from south to north. 

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Where was the first factory of british EIC set up...Is it masulipatnam or surat?

Surat

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In spectrum, it is given -1913 Surat,1916 Masulipatnam

In Sonali Bansal's book it is -1911 Masulipatnam

on Wikipedia, it is -1913 Surat

confirm from old and New NCERT it should be Surat, they just set a trading centre in Masulipatnam I guess (update here also)

Why does it show that your profile is deleted? 

It's Surat. Masulipatman was set up later.

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Why altogether new laws were brought by the companies act, 2013 and CoPrA, 2019?
Why were the existing laws not amended (companies act, 1956 and copra,1986)?

My assumption is, it may be due to the fact that there may be companies registered under 1956 already.@Patootie can explain better 

1.8k views
can governor exercise discretionary powers while dealing with 6th and 5th schd areas?

No, governor has no discretionary powers under the Fifth Schedule of the Constitution. This matter was raised years back when a PIL was filed by Chattisgarh. The last opinion of the government recorded on this matter is that governor has to act on aid and advise of CoM. 

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Kindly tell me the aim of operation twist..is it to ease loans for corporate sector

Operation Twist is RBI’s simultaneous selling of short-term securities and buying of long term securities through open market operations (OMO). Under this mechanism, the short-term securities are transitioned into long-term securities.

This operation involves buying and selling government securities simultaneously in order to bring down long-term interest rates and bolster short-term rates.

Consumers/borrowers will profit from ‘Operation Twist’ as the retail loans will now get cheaper. Previously banks were forced to price their retail loans at higher rates owing to high yields on long-term government borrowings. Cheaper retail loans mean a boost in consumption and spending in the economy which in turn will revive growth.

1.4k views