Mains Marathon

Answered: Mains Marathon – UPSC Mains Current Affairs Questions – March 2

1.What is trust? Why is trust important in public relations? (GS 4)

विश्वास क्या है? क्यों भरोसा सार्वजनिक संबंध में महत्वपूर्ण है?

Suggested Answer


  • Trust is an expectancy held by an individual or a group that the word, promise, verbal or written statement of another individual or group can be relied upon.
  • Trust is critical to the functioning of our society at all levels-interpersonal, small group, organizational, and societal-and is especially central to the practice of public relations.

Importance in public relations:-

  • The need for trust in the practice of public relations is imperative on two levels.
    • o First, to satisfythe role of being messengers for organizations, public relations practitioners must have credibility.
    • o Second, trust is critical to public relation’s primary purpose of establishing and maintainingrelationships with key stakeholders on whom the success of the organization depends.
  • Without the foundational element of trust, there are limits to how healthy perceptions of satisfaction,commitment, control mutuality, and shared values can become.
  • Without trust, organizations are bogged down by suspicion,anger, cynicism and disappointment.
  • With recent instances like protests demanding transparency in parliamentary sessions,Lack of order in assemblies show that trust in public relations is infact very significant.
  • The trust between the public and the public institutions in India like Supreme court,Election commission etc has led to sustainence of democracy in India.
  • It is the basis of ‘representative democracy’, where representatives are trusted to act in larger public interest.
  • It is important for effective service delivery and to cut red tapism. e.g. Quick delivery of welfare measures is possible based on self declarations filed by beneficiaries.

Trust is critical to the functioning of every society at all levels interpersonal, small group, organizational, and societal and is especially central to the practice of public relations.

2.“Non-violence leads to the highest ethics, which is the goal of all evolution.” Critically discuss. (GS 4)

“अहिंसा उच्चतम नैतिकता है, जो विकास का लक्ष्य है।” गंभीर रूप से चर्चा करें।

Suggested Answer


  • According to Gandhi non-injury or not entertaining ill feeling or hostility toward others due to anger, hatred, jealousy, conflict, or any act driven by selfishness is non-violence.

Yes,Non violence leads to the highest ethics:

  • In the Indian tradition harming any living being has been termed as an evil (Papaya parapidanam) and non-violence or Ahimsa is treated as the greatest Dharma or virtue (Ahimsa paramo dharmah -Mahabharata). Buddhism and Jainism have givenspecial emphasis on the practice of non-violence.
  • The harm done by failed nonviolence fades into insignificance compared to the harm done by successful or failed violence.
    • The ongoing instability and tragedy of contemporary Iraq and syria , for example, istestimony to the harm done by a supposedly successful military intervention.
  • The threat of force and use of force closes down rather than opens up conversations. The fact is that the use of violence at any level always generates deep rooted,unpredictable, and unforseen consequence.
  • Non-violence has two-pronged functioning. It not only opposes killing, aggression, enmity, jealousy, hatred, suppression and exploitation but also enhances cooperation,
    friendliness, harmony, peace, protection, and restoration of dignity in society
  • Acting non-violently enriches life of allliving beings.
  • The practice of non-violence therefore demands good will, rational thinking, self control and commitment. Peace and harmony which are essential for development and growth may happen only if there is non-violence. Using non-violence helps resolving conflict through attitudechange without external imposition.
  • Non-violence doesn’t just mean not doing violence; it’s also a way of taking positive action to resist oppression or bring about change.
  • The aim of non-violent conflict is to convert your opponent; to win over their mind and heart and persuade them that your point of view is right. An important element is often to make sure that the opponent is given a face-saving way of changing their mind. Non-violent protest seeks a ‘win-win’ solution whenever possible.
  • In non-violent conflict the participant does not want to make their opponent suffer; instead they show that they are willing to suffer themselves in order to bring about change.
  • The recent success of Jallikattu protests known for its non violent conduct shows the significance of non violence.


  • There is a place for leaders to negotiate and declare peace, but unless individuals begin the transforming work of trusting one another, this declared peace goes nowhere so violence is inevitable.
  • In the state of war, non-violence is not the solution because war itself means that all have been tried and war is always the last option. Also sometimes violent means are used by the police to maintain homeland security and peace within the society.

Although non-violence is best measure to bring peace and harmony in the society and the world but it takes time, therefore controlled violent means by the responsible authority to handle the situation in less time sometimes becomes inevitable..

3.A superior man is modest in his speech, but exceeds in his actions. Do you agree? (GS 4)

एक बेहतर आदमी अपने भाषण में मामूली है, लेकिन अपने कार्यों में अच्छा है। क्या आप सहमत हैं?

Suggested Answer


  • The statement by Confucius comprehends that actions speak louder than words.The quote continues by urging people to put their effort into actions, to exceed there, not in speech.

Superior man is modest in his speech:

  • Modesty doesn’t brag, it doesn’t put others down, it doesn’t hog credit, nor does it attempt to escape blame. Modesty helps people cooperate and work towards a common goal, as no one feels they are being cut out or marginalized.
  • If you are generous with credit, and take more than your fair share of the blame, you are a team player. If you were in charge of the event, you become a leader that people would like to follow the best example in this case would be Mr.Kalam who is respected widely for his actions and the inspiration meted out for others and yet being so simple and humble.This kind of attitude provides credibility.
  • These kind of people take the criticism in a constructive way and try to learn  from their mistakes and move toward higher benchmarks of success.
  • People like Gandhiji, Nelson Mandela, Ambedkar, and many others are inseparable from what they stand for and became an institution of such qualities itself. They left a permanent impression on the society.

When it comes to administration in India most of the civil servants have the opportunity to do the action some have witnessed tremendous achievements by making districts open defecation free,providing 100℅literacy etc .The work itself motivates them rather than the praises and the rewards they would receive.


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