National Security and its Elements
Its basic elements are as follows:
1.Socio-political stability– It has the following two components:
Maintenance of public order– Disturbed public order has a bearing on political stability and people blame the government for failing to maintain the public order and demand change in government.
Freedom from oppression and crime at the hands of certain people of the society.
2.Territorial Integrity – Nation should protect itself from all illegal intrusions and resource exploitation.
3.Economic Security – Nation to have a stable income or other sources to support a standard of living now and in the near future.
4.Environmental security – Effective conservation of natural environment in the face of industrial and agricultural expansion and population growth.
5.Energy security – To have access to cheap and renewable sources of energy.
7.Moral and spiritual consensus – All People should have a national vision and a national pride.
Figure 1.1: Facets of National Security
Internal and External Security
The two aspects of National Security are Internal and External Security. At the outset, it is important to understand the difference between them:
i).It is the security of the country from internal actors as well as foreign actors, within its boundaries
ii).Its maintenance is the sole responsibility of the State police, supported by Central police forces and armed forces.
iii).It falls under the purview of Ministry of Home Affairs
iv).Fighting from internal forces require an unconventional set of skills of warfare.
v).Police efforts for internal security maintenance may lead to issues of human rights violence as it often involves a war against our own people.
vi).Internal troubles are often a result of aggrieved Indian citizens because of an inequitable development process.
i).It is the security of the country from aggression by a foreign country.
ii).Its maintenance is the sole responsibility of the armed forces.
iii).It falls under the purview of Ministry of Defence
iv).Fighting from external forces involves conventional warfare skills.
v).Human rights issues are generally neglected while fighting a war against foreign country.
vi).External troubles are often a result of boundary disputes or economic competition between two countries.
Kautilya classified the threats to a country into four categories:
- Internally aided External, e.g. when internal terror groups aid hostile nations like Pakistan.
- Externally aided Internal, e.g when hostile nations like China support the Maoists of the country.
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