Directions: Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow:
The Food and Drug Administration has recently proposed severe restrictions on the use of antibiotics to promote the health and growth of meat animals. Medications added to feeds kill many microorganisms but also encourage the appearance of bacterial strains that are resistant to anti-infective drugs. Already, for example, penicillin and the tetracyclines are not as effective therapeutically as they once were. The drug resistance is chiefly conferred by tiny circlets of genes, called plasmids that can be exchanged between different strains and even different species of bacteria. Plasmids are also one of the two kinds of vehicles (the other being viruses) that molecular biologists depend on when performing gene transplant experiments. Even present guidelines forbid the laboratory use of plasmids bearing genes for resistance to antibiotics. Yet, while congressional debate rages over whether or not to toughen these restrictions on scientists in their laboratories, little congressional attention has been focused on an ill-advised agricultural practice that produces known deleterious effects.
Q.1 The author is primarily concerned with:
1. Discovering methods of eliminating drugresistant bacteria
2. Regulation of gene transplant experiments
3. Problematic agricultural practice and its serious genetic consequences
4. Ineffectiveness of anti-infective drugs
Select the correct answer from the codes given below:
a) 1 and 2 only
b) 2 only
c) 3 only
d) 1 and 4 only
Solution: The Food and Drug Administration’s restriction has been used to introduce the problem. In the passage, the author is primarily concerned with describing a problematic agricultural practice and its serious genetic consequences. Mostly he had discussed about the same in the above passage.
Q.2 Which of the following happens as the result in the exchange of plasmids between different bacteria?
a) Viruses become obsolete for gene transplantation experiments
b) Microorganisms get killed
c) The bacteria lose their potency
d)Microorganisms develop resistance to drugs
Solution: The drug resistance is chiefly conferred by plasmids.
Q.3 Those in favour of stiffening the restrictions on gene transplant should:
a) Boost experiments with any plasmids, except those with genes for antibiotic resistance
b) Discuss the restrictions imposed on scientists in lab experiments
c) Encourage the development of meatier livestock through the use of antibiotics
d) Favour congressional debate and discussion of all health issues of meat animals
Solution: In these lines “Even present guidelines….known deleterious effects” the author clearly objects the use of plasmids bearing genes for resistance to antibiotics. So he would expect the authorities to do the opposite.
Q.4 The author’s outlook toward the progress of developing bacterial strains that render ineffective antibiotic drugs can be labeled as:
Solution: Medications added to feeds kill many microorganisms but also encourage the appearance of bacterial strains that are resistant to
antiinfective drugs. Here authors show his acceptance with the fact those bacterial strains are resistant to drugs.
Q.5 Menaka travels for certain distance with the speed of 15 km/hr and the remaining distance at 40 km/hr. The total distance travelled is 140 km and the total time taken is 6 hours. For how long she travelled at the speed of 15 km/hr?
a) 5 hrs
b) 2.5 hrs
c) 3 hrs
d) 4 hrs
Let a be the time travelled with the speed of 15 km/hr. The distance travelled with the speed of 15 km/hr = 15a
The distance travelled with the speed of 40 km/hr = 40(6a) 15a + 40(6a) = 140
15a – 40a + 240 = 140 25a = 100
a = 4 hrs.
Q.6 Due to shortage in the supply, the price of Mango is increasing in the market. With each day, the price increases by Rs. 5/kg. Kiran buys 1 kg of Mango everyday. If the price of mango is Rs. 10/kg today, what is the total money kiran would have spent after 10 days for buying mangoes?
Solution: The initial price = 10
Increase per day = 5
After 10 days, the money spent = n/2 [2a+(n1)d] = 10/2 [2×10 + 9×5] = 5 x 65
Q.7 Consider the following figure:
From the following 4 options, select the correct letter-number pair to fill the question marks in the main figure.
a) L 12
b) L 13
c) M 13
d) M – 12
Solution: The gap between the letters increases by 1 in alphabetical order. D,(E),F,(G,H),I,(J,K,L,),M. The number of the letter in the alphabetical order is represented below the letter.
Q.8 Aruna is taller than Bindu but not as tall as Chaitra. Damini is taller than Eva but not as tall as Bindu. Who among them is the tallest?
Solution.: Aruna is taller than Bindu but not as tall as Chaitra. The arrangement as per the height will be
→ CAB (in the decreasing order)
Damini is taller than Eva but not as tall as Bindu.
→ BDE Combining both, → CABDE