Categories
Saturday CSAT Quiz

[Solutions] – Saturday CSAT Quiz #17

saturday-solution

Directions: Read the passage and answer the questions that follow

Positive reinforcement is the presentation of an event (e.g.,food or money)that strengthens or increases the likelihood of a behavior. Punishment occurs when a response is followed by an event such as pain. You put your hand on a hot stove, burn yourself, and learn to stop doing that. Punishment is also called passive avoidance learning because the individual learns to avoid an outcome by being passive (e.g.,by not putting your hand on the stove).Try not to be confused by the term negative reinforcement. Negative reinforcement is a kind of reinforcement (not a punishment),and therefore, it increases the frequency of a behavior. It is “negative” because the reinforcement is the absence of something. For example, you learn to apply sun­screen to avoid skin cancer, and you learn to brush your teeth to avoid tooth decay. Negative reinforcement increases the behavior and decreases the undesirable outcome. Negative reinforcement is also known as escape learning if the response stops an outcome or avoidance learning if it prevents the outcome altogether .Far more researchers use the terms escape learning and avoidance learning than the potentially confusing term negative reinforcement. Pigeons in Skinner’s experiment had these response patterns to the different schedules. Just like people, the pigeons produced higher response rates when reinforcement was linked to the number of responses in a ratio schedule as opposed to the amount of time in an interval schedule. The pigeons also produced more consistent responding with an unpredictable or variable schedule as opposed to a predictable or fixed schedule.

Q.1 Based on the passage above about reinforcement, three of the following are examples of positive reinforcement. Which one is not?

a) When Asha’s teacher praises her in class for her oral report, Asha is embarrassed and vows never to act so smart in front of her friends again.

b) When Bhaskar changes the way he throws the javelin, he finds that it goes farther than it ever has before, and so he continues to use the new technique.

c) When Chitra tells a funny joke, his classmates laugh. Chitra soon becomes the class clown, telling jokes at every opportunity.

d) When Dinesh discovers that she can leave physical education class early by complaining about a stomach ache, she begins to get these “stomach aches” about once a week.

Solution. The option is wrong because, positive reinforcement means Positive reinforcement is the presentation of an event (e.g.,food or money)that strengthens or increases the likelihood of a behavior, here Asha is EMBARRASED and decides not to continue to show improvement unlike other options.

Answer. a

Q.2 Which of the following is an example of “negative reinforcement”?

a) Priya’s friends think she’s cool because she has the audacity to swear in class.

b) Oviya completes her English paper two days early so she won’t have it hanging over her head.

c) Tom’s teacher scolds him when she finds a copy of sports magazine hidden behind the textbook he is supposed to be reading.

d) Bindu gets the attention of all the pupil when she doesn’t responds to teachers in the class.

Solution. Negative reinforcement is a kind of reinforcement (not a punishment), and therefore, it increases the frequency of a behavior. It is “negative” because the reinforcement is the absence of something. Only Example statement B supports the explanation.

Answer. b

 

Q.3 Negative reinforcement brings about an increase of a behavior through the _____ of a stimulus

a) Addition

b) absence

c) Inducement

d) correcting

Solution. Negative reinforcement increases the frequency of a behavior. It is “negative” because the reinforcement is the absence of something.

Answer. b

 

Q.4 Consider the following statements.
1. Escape learning and avoidance learning are also known as negative reinforcement.

2. Negative reinforcement increases a behavior and decreases the undesirable outcome.

Choose the correct option

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 or 2

Solution. Both the statements can be picked up in a different form from the passage.

Answer. c

Q.5  A family has 6 members. The average age of all the members is 18 years. The youngest member is 8 years old. What is the average age of the family during the birth of the youngest member?

a) 10 years

b) 14 years

c) 12 years

d) 15 years

Solution. The sum of ages of all the members = 18 X 6 = 108.
The sum of ages except the youngest member = 108 – 8 = 100
8 years before the sum of ages of 5 members = 100 – (8X5) = 100 – 40 = 60

The average age before 8 years = 60 / 5 = 12 years.

Answer. c

 

Q.6 Kiran sells a book to Tarun at a profit of 50%. Tarun sells it to Charan at a profit of 20%. If Charan paid Kiran Rs. 360, what was the original price at which Kiran bought the book?

a) Rs. 150

b) Rs. 180

c) Rs. 200

d) Rs. 290

Solution. Let the original price be x.
Tarun paid kiran 1.5x and charan paid Tarun 1.2 X (1.5x) = 1.8x It is given that Tarun paid Rs.360 = 1.8x

X = 360/1.8 = Rs.200

Answer. c

 

Directions for the following  items: Read the following information carefully and answer the items that follow.

At a cricket stadium, five men (A,B,C,D, and E) and their five wives (G,H,I,J and K) occupy a row of 10 seats but not necessarily in the same order. The men occupy the odd numbered seats starting from left and each women sits next to their husband.

  • D is J’s husband
  • K is not at the right most end of the row and her husband is not at the left most end of the row.
  • J sits next to B

Q.7 Who is B’s wife if,

i) K’s husband is sitting next to H

ii) J is sitting at 4th seat from the left

Select the correct answer from the codes given below:

a) K

b) I

c) H

d) G

Solution. From the initial information, it can be deduced that D – J – B sit together
K can sit only in 4th, 6th and 8th seat.
Now,

K’s husband is sitting next to H => H­_­K J is at 4th
Hence K can sit only at 8th.

Screenshot 2016-07-30 14.57.53

B’s wife is H.

Answer. c

 

Q.8 Who is H’s husband if,

i) A is K’s husband and sits next to B’s wife.

ii) E sits in the 2nd seat from the right and next to H who is not his wife.

Select the correct answer from the codes given below:

a) B

b) C

c) D

d) A

Solution. E sits in the 2nd seat from the right and next to H who is not his wife. H­E = 8­9
A is K’s husband and sits next to B’s wife.
B­_­A­K

But D­J­B sit together.
=> D­J­B­_­A­K
K cannot come at 4th place. So K has to come at 6th.

Only man left is C, which has to come at 7. Therefore C is H’s husband.

Answer. b

Screenshot 2016-07-30 14.59.10

Categories
Saturday CSAT Quiz

Saturday CSAT Quiz #17

saturday

[Questions]

Directions: Read the passage and answer the questions that follow

Positive reinforcement is the presentation of an event (e.g.,food or money)that strengthens or increases the likelihood of a behavior. Punishment occurs when a response is followed by an event such as pain. You put your hand on a hot stove, burn yourself, and learn to stop doing that. Punishment is also called passive avoidance learning because the individual learns to avoid an outcome by being passive (e.g.,by not putting your hand on the stove).Try not to be confused by the term negative reinforcement. Negative reinforcement is a kind of reinforcement (not a punishment),and therefore, it increases the frequency of a behavior. It is “negative” because the reinforcement is the absence of something. For example, you learn to apply sun­screen to avoid skin cancer, and you learn to brush your teeth to avoid tooth decay. Negative reinforcement increases the behavior and decreases the undesirable outcome. Negative reinforcement is also known as escape learning if the response stops an outcome or avoidance learning if it prevents the outcome altogether .Far more researchers use the terms escape learning and avoidance learning than the potentially confusing term negative reinforcement. Pigeons in Skinner’s experiment had these response patterns to the different schedules. Just like people, the pigeons produced higher response rates when reinforcement was linked to the number of responses in a ratio schedule as opposed to the amount of time in an interval schedule. The pigeons also produced more consistent responding with an unpredictable or variable schedule as opposed to a predictable or fixed schedule.

Q.1 Based on the passage above about reinforcement, three of the following are examples of positive reinforcement. Which one is not?

a) When Asha’s teacher praises her in class for her oral report, Asha is embarrassed and vows never to act so smart in front of her friends again.

b) When Bhaskar changes the way he throws the javelin, he finds that it goes farther than it ever has before, and so he continues to use the new technique.

c) When Chitra tells a funny joke, his classmates laugh. Chitra soon becomes the class clown, telling jokes at every opportunity.

d) When Dinesh discovers that she can leave physical education class early by complaining about a stomach ache, she begins to get these “stomach aches” about once a week.

 

Q.2 Which of the following is an example of “negative reinforcement”?

a) Priya’s friends think she’s cool because she has the audacity to swear in class.

b) Oviya completes her English paper two days early so she won’t have it hanging over her head.

c) Tom’s teacher scolds him when she finds a copy of sports magazine hidden behind the textbook he is supposed to be reading.

d) Bindu gets the attention of all the pupil when she doesn’t responds to teachers in the class.

 

Q.3 Negative reinforcement brings about an increase of a behavior through the _____ of a stimulus

a) Addition

b) absence

c) Inducement

d) correcting

 

Q.4 Consider the following statements.
1. Escape learning and avoidance learning are also known as negative reinforcement.

2. Negative reinforcement increases a behavior and decreases the undesirable outcome.

Choose the correct option

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 or 2

 

Q.5  A family has 6 members. The average age of all the members is 18 years. The youngest member is 8 years old. What is the average age of the family during the birth of the youngest member?

a) 10 years

b) 14 years

c) 12 years

d) 15 years

 

Q.6 Kiran sells a book to Tarun at a profit of 50%. Tarun sells it to Charan at a profit of 20%. If Charan paid Kiran Rs. 360, what was the original price at which Kiran bought the book?

a) Rs. 150

b) Rs. 180

c) Rs. 200

d) Rs. 290

 

Directions for the following  items: Read the following information carefully and answer the items that follow.

At a cricket stadium, five men (A,B,C,D, and E) and their five wives (G,H,I,J and K) occupy a row of 10 seats but not necessarily in the same order. The men occupy the odd numbered seats starting from left and each women sits next to their husband.
­

  • D is J’s husband
  • K is not at the right most end of the row and her husband is not at the left most end of the row.
  • J sits next to B

 

Q.7 Who is B’s wife if,

i) K’s husband is sitting next to H

ii) J is sitting at 4th seat from the left

Select the correct answer from the codes given below:

a) K

b) I

c) H

d) G

 

 

Q.8 Who is H’s husband if,

i) A is K’s husband and sits next to B’s wife.

ii) E sits in the 2nd seat from the right and next to H who is not his wife.

Select the correct answer from the codes given below:

a) B

b) C

c) D

d) A

 

 

Categories
Saturday CSAT Quiz

[Solutions] Saturday CSAT Quiz #16

saturday-solution

[Solutions]

Directions: Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow:

The Food and Drug Administration has recently proposed severe restrictions on the use of antibiotics to promote the health and growth of meat animals. Medications added to feeds kill many microorganisms but also encourage the appearance of bacterial strains that are resistant to anti­-infective drugs. Already, for example, penicillin and the tetracyclines are not as effective therapeutically as they once were. The drug resistance is chiefly conferred by tiny circlets of genes, called plasmids that can be exchanged between different strains and even different species of bacteria. Plasmids are also one of the two kinds of vehicles (the other being viruses) that molecular biologists depend on when performing gene transplant experiments. Even present guidelines forbid the laboratory use of plasmids bearing genes for resistance to antibiotics. Yet, while congressional debate rages over whether or not to toughen these restrictions on scientists in their laboratories, little congressional attention has been focused on an ill-­advised agricultural practice that produces known deleterious effects.

Q.1 The author is primarily concerned with:

1. Discovering methods of eliminating drug­resistant bacteria

2. Regulation of gene transplant experiments

3. Problematic agricultural practice and its serious genetic consequences

4. Ineffectiveness of anti-­infective drugs

Select the correct answer from the codes given below:

a) 1 and 2 only

b) 2 only

c) 3 only

d) 1 and 4 only

Solution: The Food and Drug Administration’s restriction has been used to introduce the problem. In the passage, the author is primarily concerned with describing a problematic agricultural practice and its serious genetic consequences. Mostly he had discussed about the same in the above passage.

Answer c)

 

Q.2 Which of the following happens as the result in the exchange of plasmids between different bacteria?

a) Viruses become obsolete for gene transplantation experiments

b) Microorganisms get killed

c) The bacteria lose their potency

d)Microorganisms develop resistance to drugs

 

Solution: The drug resistance is chiefly conferred by plasmids.

Answer d)

 

Q.3 Those in favour of stiffening the restrictions on gene transplant should:

a) Boost experiments with any plasmids, except those with genes for antibiotic resistance

b) Discuss the restrictions imposed on scientists in lab experiments

c) Encourage the development of meatier livestock through the use of antibiotics

d)  Favour congressional debate and discussion of all health issues of meat animals

Solution: In these lines “Even present guidelines….known deleterious effects” the author clearly objects the use of plasmids bearing genes for resistance to antibiotics. So he would expect the authorities to do the opposite.

Answer a)

 

Q.4 The author’s outlook toward the progress of developing bacterial strains that render ineffective antibiotic drugs can be labeled as:

a) insincere

b) apprehensive

c) indifferent

d) perplexed

Solution: Medications added to feeds kill many microorganisms but also encourage the appearance of bacterial strains that are resistant to

anti­infective drugs. Here authors show his acceptance with the fact those bacterial strains are resistant to drugs.

Answer. b

 

Q.5 Menaka travels for certain distance with the speed of 15 km/hr and the remaining distance at 40 km/hr. The total distance travelled is 140 km and the total time taken is 6 hours. For how long she travelled at the speed of 15 km/hr?

a) 5 hrs

b) 2.5 hrs

c) 3 hrs

d) 4 hrs

Solution:

Let a be the time travelled with the speed of 15 km/hr. The distance travelled with the speed of 15 km/hr = 15a

The distance travelled with the speed of 40 km/hr = 40(6­a) 15a + 40(6­a) = 140

15a – 40a + 240 = 140 25a = 100

a = 4 hrs.

Answer d)

 

Q.6 Due to shortage in the supply, the price of Mango is increasing in the market. With each day, the price increases by Rs. 5/kg. Kiran buys 1 kg of Mango everyday. If the price of mango is Rs. 10/kg today, what is the total money kiran would have spent after 10 days for buying mangoes?

a) 325

b) 105

c) 265

d) 500

Solution: The initial price = 10
Increase per day = 5
After 10 days, the money spent = n/2 [2a+(n­1)d] = 10/2 [2×10 + 9×5]
= 5 x 65
= 325

Answer a)

 

Q.7 Consider the following figure:

Screenshot 2016-07-23 01.01.37

From the following 4 options, select the correct letter­-number pair to fill the question marks in the main figure.

a) L ­ 12

b) L ­ 13

c) M ­ 13

d) M – 12

Solution: The gap between the letters increases by 1 in alphabetical order. D,(E),F,(G,H),I,(J,K,L,),M. The number of the letter in the alphabetical order is represented below the letter.

Answer c)

 

Q.8 Aruna is taller than Bindu but not as tall as Chaitra. Damini is taller than Eva but not as tall as Bindu. Who among them is the tallest?

a) Bindu

b) Chaitra

c) Aruna

d) Eva

Solution.: Aruna is taller than Bindu but not as tall as Chaitra. The arrangement as per the height will be
→ C­A­B (in the decreasing order)
Damini is taller than Eva but not as tall as Bindu.

→ B­D­E Combining both, → C­A­B­D­E

Answer b)

Categories
Saturday CSAT Quiz

Saturday CSAT Quiz #16

saturday

[Questions]

Directions: Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow:

The Food and Drug Administration has recently proposed severe restrictions on the use of antibiotics to promote the health and growth of meat animals. Medications added to feeds kill many microorganisms but also encourage the appearance of bacterial strains that are resistant to anti­-infective drugs. Already, for example, penicillin and the tetracyclines are not as effective therapeutically as they once were. The drug resistance is chiefly conferred by tiny circlets of genes, called plasmids that can be exchanged between different strains and even different species of bacteria. Plasmids are also one of the two kinds of vehicles (the other being viruses) that molecular biologists depend on when performing gene transplant experiments. Even present guidelines forbid the laboratory use of plasmids bearing genes for resistance to antibiotics. Yet, while congressional debate rages over whether or not to toughen these restrictions on scientists in their laboratories, little congressional attention has been focused on an ill-­advised agricultural practice that produces known deleterious effects.

Q.1 The author is primarily concerned with:

1. Discovering methods of eliminating drug­resistant bacteria

2. Regulation of gene transplant experiments

3. Problematic agricultural practice and its serious genetic consequences

4. Ineffectiveness of anti-­infective drugs

Select the correct answer from the codes given below:

a) 1 and 2 only

b) 2 only

c) 3 only

d) 1 and 4 only

 

Q.2 Which of the following happens as the result in the exchange of plasmids between different bacteria?

a) Viruses become obsolete for gene transplantation experiments

b) Microorganisms get killed

c) The bacteria lose their potency

d)Microorganisms develop resistance to drugs

 

Q.3 Those in favour of stiffening the restrictions on gene transplant should:

a) Boost experiments with any plasmids, except those with genes for antibiotic resistance

b) Discuss the restrictions imposed on scientists in lab experiments

c) Encourage the development of meatier livestock through the use of antibiotics

d)  Favour congressional debate and discussion of all health issues of meat animals

 

Q.4 The author’s outlook toward the progress of developing bacterial strains that render ineffective antibiotic drugs can be labeled as:

a) insincere

b) apprehensive

c) indifferent

d) perplexed

 

Q.5 Menaka travels for certain distance with the speed of 15 km/hr and the remaining distance at 40 km/hr. The total distance travelled is 140 km and the total time taken is 6 hours. For how long she travelled at the speed of 15 km/hr?

a) 5 hrs

b) 2.5 hrs

c) 3 hrs

d) 4 hrs

 

Q.6 Due to shortage in the supply, the price of Mango is increasing in the market. With each day, the price increases by Rs. 5/kg. Kiran buys 1 kg of Mango everyday. If the price of mango is Rs. 10/kg today, what is the total money kiran would have spent after 10 days for buying mangoes?

a) 325

b) 105

c) 265

d) 500

 

Q.7 Consider the following figure:

Screenshot 2016-07-23 01.01.37

From the following 4 options, select the correct letter­-number pair to fill the question marks in the main figure.

a) L ­ 12

b) L ­ 13

c) M ­ 13

d) M – 12

 

Q.8 Aruna is taller than Bindu but not as tall as Chaitra. Damini is taller than Eva but not as tall as Bindu. Who among them is the tallest?

a) Bindu

b) Chaitra

c) Aruna

d) Eva

Categories
Saturday CSAT Quiz

[Solutions] Saturday CSAT Quiz #15

saturday-solution

[Solutions]

Directions: Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow

There is an impression amongst scholars that growth acceleration has not helped the Scheduled Tribes. This impression has derived partially from the existence of the Maoist insurgency in certain regions where the tribes are concentrated, and partially from a sense that when displacement happens from projects involving mineral extraction, tribes are not adequately compensated. While the adverse impact of these factors on the tribes can be scarcely denied, the evidence of the decline in poverty among the Scheduled Tribes is quite unequivocal. In this regard, two factors must be kept in mind. First, while the beginning of the poverty decline can be traced to the early 1980s, the Maoist insurgency, and even the acceleration in mineral extraction activity, is of more recent origin. And second, the states with the largest populations of Scheduled Tribes, including Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Gujarat, have not been the hotbeds of the Maoist insurgency.

Q.1 What does the author imply from the passage?

1. Liberalizing reforms has reduced poverty among better caste people.

2. Decline in poverty among the Scheduled Tribes is indisputable

3. Growth Reforms have bypassed, and sometimes hurt, the scheduled tribes.

Select the correct answer from the codes given below:

a) 1 and 2 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c) 1, 2 and 3

d) 2 only

Ans-[B]

Solution: From the lines, “While the adverse impact of…… recent origin” the statements can be inferred

 

Q.2 Which of the following statements regarding the existence of the Maoist insurgency is true?

1. Presence of more tribal population.

2. Displacement of people where minerals are extracted.

3. Inadequate compensation and relocation facility for the tribes.

Select the correct answer from the codes given below:

a) 1 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c) 1 and 2 only

d) 1,2 and 3 only

Ans:-[A]

Solution: Statement 2 is not related to insurgency. correct option should be (a) and Statement 3 is wrong because, the passage doesn’t speak about the relocation of tribes.

 

Q.3 Consider the following statements:

1. The activity of mining minerals is rapidly increasing.

2. States with the largest ST population have been focal point of the Maoist insurgency.

Which of the above statements is/are true?

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans-[C]

Solution: Both the statements are found in the last 3 lines of the passage.

 

Q.4 In an election to Gram Panchayat only 2 candidates participated. The winner candidate received 68% of the votes and won by a majority of 1440 votes. What was the total number of votes polled, if all the votes were valid?

a) 3500

b) 4000

c) 4400

d) 3600

Ans-[B]

Solution: Let x be the total number of votes polled. Winner received 0.68x and the loser received 0.32x. From the given information,
0.68x – 0.32x = 1440

0.36x = 1440
x = 1440/0.36 = 4000

Q.5 Anil travels to next city from his home and returns back in 9 hours. The average speed during the first half of journey was 16 km/hr and during the second half was 20 km/hr. What is the total distance travelled by Anil?

a) 100 km

b) 160 km

c) 80 km

d) 120 km

Ans-[B]

Solution: Let a be the distance one way.
The time taken during the first half of journey = a/16 The time taken during the second half of journey = a/20 a/16+ a/20 = 9
36a = 9x16x20
a = 80

The total distance covered = 160 km.

 

Directions: Read the following information carefully and answer the 3 items that follow.

If the first four letters of the word CEASELESSNESS are reversed, the next four letters are written as they are and then the remaining letters are reversed,

Q.6 Which letter will be exactly the middle letter of the word?

a) E

b) L

c) N

d) S

Ans-[A]

Solution. The first four letters are reversed, the next four letters are written as they are and then the remaining letters are reversed. The new word will be,Screenshot 2016-07-16 14.57.27

 

Q.7 The maximum number of the letter S that appears continuously is:

a) 2

b) 1

c) 4

d) 3

Ans[D]

Solution:

The letter S appears continuously 3 times at the positions 8, 9 and 10.

 

Q.8 If all the vowels are removed from the new word, what are the two middle letters?

a L and S

b) S and N

c) S and S

d)  C and S

Ans-[C]

Screenshot 2016-07-16 15.00.07

Categories
Saturday CSAT Quiz

Saturday CSAT Quiz # 15

saturday

[Questions]

Directions: Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow

There is an impression amongst scholars that growth acceleration has not helped the Scheduled Tribes. This impression has derived partially from the existence of the Maoist insurgency in certain regions where the tribes are concentrated, and partially from a sense that when displacement happens from projects involving mineral extraction, tribes are not adequately compensated. While the adverse impact of these factors on the tribes can be scarcely denied, the evidence of the decline in poverty among the Scheduled Tribes is quite unequivocal. In this regard, two factors must be kept in mind. First, while the beginning of the poverty decline can be traced to the early 1980s, the Maoist insurgency, and even the acceleration in mineral extraction activity, is of more recent origin. And second, the states with the largest populations of Scheduled Tribes, including Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Gujarat, have not been the hotbeds of the Maoist insurgency.

Q.1 What does the author imply from the passage?

1. Liberalizing reforms has reduced poverty among better caste people.

2. Decline in poverty among the Scheduled Tribes is indisputable

3. Growth Reforms have bypassed, and sometimes hurt, the scheduled tribes.

Select the correct answer from the codes given below:

a) 1 and 2 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c) 1, 2 and 3

d) 2 only

 

Q.2 Which of the following statements regarding the existence of the Maoist insurgency is true?

1. Presence of more tribal population.

2. Displacement of people where minerals are extracted.

3. Inadequate compensation and relocation facility for the tribes.

Select the correct answer from the codes given below:

a) 1 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c) 1 and 2 only

d) 1,2 and 3 only

 

Q.3 Consider the following statements:

1. The activity of mining minerals is rapidly increasing.

2. States with the largest ST population have been focal point of the Maoist insurgency.

Which of the above statements is/are true?

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

 

Q.4 In an election to Gram Panchayat only 2 candidates participated. The winner candidate received 68% of the votes and won by a majority of 1440 votes. What was the total number of votes polled, if all the votes were valid?

a) 3500

b) 4000

c) 4400

d) 3600

 

Q.5 Anil travels to next city from his home and returns back in 9 hours. The average speed during the first half of journey was 16 km/hr and during the second half was 20 km/hr. What is the total distance travelled by Anil?

a) 100 km

b) 160 km

c) 80 km

d) 120 km

 

Directions: Read the following information carefully and answer the 3 items that follow.

If the first four letters of the word CEASELESSNESS are reversed, the next four letters are written as they are and then the remaining letters are reversed,

Q.6 Which letter will be exactly the middle letter of the word?

a) E

b) L

c) N

d) S

 

Q.7 The maximum number of the letter S that appears continuously is:

a) 2

b) 1

c) 4

d) 3

 

Q.8 If all the vowels are removed from the new word, what are the two middle letters?

a L and S

b) S and N

c) S and S

d)  C and S

Categories
Saturday CSAT Quiz

[Solutions] Saturday CSAT Quiz #14

saturday-solution

[Solutions]

Directions: Read the passage and answer the items that follow. Your answers to these items should be based on the passage only.

What is the ultimate cause of poverty? Is democracy good for the poor? Does foreign aid have a role to play? Jeffrey Sachs, adviser to the United Nations, has an answer to all these questions: Poor countries are poor because they are hot, infertile, malaria infested, often landlocked; this makes it hard for them to be productive without an initial large investment to help them deal with these endemic problems. But they cannot pay for the investments precisely because they are poor­ they are in what economies call a ”poverty trap.” Until something is done about these problems, neither free market nor democracy will do very much for them. That is why foreign aid is key: It can kick start a virtuous cycle by helping poor countries invest in these critical areas and make them more productive. The resulting higher incomes will generate further investments; the beneficial spiral will continue.

In his bestselling 2005 book, The End of Poverty, Sachs argue that if the rich world had committed $195 billion in foreign aid per year between 2005 & 2025, poverty could have been entirely eliminated by the end of this period.

But there are others, equally vocal, who believe that all of Sach’s answers are wrong. William Easterly, who battles Sachs from New York University at the other end of Manhattan, has become one of the most influential anti-­aid public figures, following the publication of two books, The Elusive Quest for Growth and The White Man’s burden. Dambisa Moyo, an economists who previously worked at Goldman Sachs and at the World Bank, has joined her voice to Easterly’s with her recent book, Dead Aid. Both argue that, aid does more bad than good: It prevents people from searching for their own solutions, while corrupting and undermining local institutions and creating a self-­perpetuating lobby of aid agencies. The best bet for poor countries is to rely on one simple idea: When markets are free and the incentives are right, people can find ways to solve their problem. They do not need handouts, from foreigners or from their own governments. In this sense, the aid pessimists are actually quite optimistic about the way the world works. According to Easterly, there are no such things as poverty trap.

Q.1 According to the passage the nature of relation between poverty and lack of investment is:­

a) One sided

b) Linear

c) Cyclic

d) Tangential

Ans-[D]

 

Q.2 Which of the following has been suggested as an idea to end poverty in the passage above?

1. Democratic Institutions

2. Free market economics & liberalism

3. Financial Assistance by the rich

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:­

a) 1 & 2 only

b) 2 & 3 only

c) 1 & 3

d) All of the above

Ans-[B]

Explanation: Statement 2 can be derived from this line in passage – “Sachs argue that if the rich world had committed $195 billion in foreign aid per year between 2005 & 2025, poverty could have been entirely eliminated by the end of this period.

Statement 3 can be derived from this line in the passage- The best bet for poor countries is to rely on one simple idea: When markets are free and the incentives are right, people can find ways to solve their problem.

 

Q.3 Which of the following can be logically inferred from the passage above?

a) Jeffrey Sachs is hopeful about the elimination of poverty.

b) William Easterly is hopeful about the elimination of poverty

c) Both Easterly and Sachs are optimistic about elimination of poverty and suggest similar measures

d) Both Easterly and Sachs are optimistic about elimination of poverty and suggest diagonally opposite measures

Ans-[D]

Explanation- Both easterly and Sachs say that poverty can be eliminated. Sachs says that it can be eliminated by aid from rich while Easterly says that it can be eliminated by free market and not by handouts from rich

 

Q.4 The author of the passage seems to suggest that :­

a) Aid is the way to go for ending poverty

b) Free market is the most suitable model for ending poverty

c) There are more ways than one to fight poverty

d) There are no signs of end of poverty in near times

Ans-[C]

Different thinkers offer different ways out of poverty as illustrated by different  views of Sachs and Easterly.

 

Q.5 On a certain planet, if “bring me water” is represented by NET, “water is cold” is represented by TSO then what will be the code for “Bring Cold Water” ?

a) TEO

b) EON

c) NST

d) Either (A) or (C)

Ans-[D]

Solution- Bring me Water = NET
Water is cold = TSO
Common Terms on LHS & RHS is Water and T respectively
Hence code for water is T
Thus code for Bring & Me can be N & E (not in same order)
Code for is cold can be S & O (not in same order)
Hence Code for “Bring Cold Water” will have T (for water) and any of the codes for Bring (N or E) + Cold (S or E) Hence option D

 

Q.6 Three friends, returning from a movie, stop to eat at a restaurant. After dinner, they paid their bills and were served mints on the table. Ram took 1/3rd of the mints, but returned four as he felt he had taken too much. Shyam then took 1/4th of what was left but returned three for similar reasons. Ravi then took half of the remainder but threw two back into the bowl. The bowl now had only 17 mints left. How many mints were originally in the bowl?

a) 38

b) 31

c) 41

d) None of these

Ans-[D]

Solution-The number of mints should be divisible by 3 and none of them are so [d]

 

Q.7 The height of a certain flag pole is 30 feet. The pole surface has been greased to make it slippery to prevent monkeys from climbing the pole. A monkey attempts to climb the pole. It climbs 3 feet every second but slips down 2 ft in the next second. When will the monkey reach the top of the flag pole.

a) 56 secs

b) 27 secs

c) 60 secs

d) 55 secs

Ans-[D]

Solution- Every two seconds the monkey gains 1 ft. Climbs 3 feet in 1st second and slips 2 feet in the next. However, when it has reached 27 ft, in the next jump (3ft upwards) it will reach the top. It will take 27 * 2 = 54 seconds to reach 27ft & then 1 sec to reach the top. Hence 55 seconds.

 

Q.8 In a building with 7 floors ­ there is exactly one floor between Bengali and Tamilian. The Bengali lives on the higher floor. The Marathi lives on the floor next to the Punjabi. The Gujarati does not live on the topmost floor. The Keralite lives in the same building. Assume that nobody lives on the ground floor. If the Bengali stays on the fifth floor, then which among the following is correct?

a) the Gujarati stays on the fourth floor

b) the Marathi stays on the second floor

c) The Punjabi stays on the sixth floor

d) The Tamilian is on the floor next to the Keralite

Ans-[A]

Solution- There is exactly one floor between Bengali and Tamilian and Bengali lives on a higher floor. So we have B _ T The Marathi lives on the floor next to the Punjabi. So either Mp or PM Gujarati does not live on the floor 6. If Bengali is on floor 5, we have _ _ T _ B (floors 1 to 6). The Marathi and Punjabi pairs can fit on floors 1 and 2 only. Since Gujarati is not on floor 6, he is on floor 4.

Categories
Saturday CSAT Quiz

Saturday CSAT Quiz #14

saturday

Hello Everyone,

Please solve these 8 questions on CSAT. Solutions will be uploaded at 5:00 pm today.

[Questions]

Directions: Read the passage and answer the items that follow. Your answers to these items should be based on the passage only.

What is the ultimate cause of poverty? Is democracy good for the poor? Does foreign aid have a role to play? Jeffrey Sachs, adviser to the United Nations, has an answer to all these questions: Poor countries are poor because they are hot, infertile, malaria infested, often landlocked; this makes it hard for them to be productive without an initial large investment to help them deal with these endemic problems. But they cannot pay for the investments precisely because they are poor­ they are in what economies call a ”poverty trap.” Until something is done about these problems, neither free market nor democracy will do very much for them. That is why foreign aid is key: It can kick start a virtuous cycle by helping poor countries invest in these critical areas and make them more productive. The resulting higher incomes will generate further investments; the beneficial spiral will continue.

In his bestselling 2005 book, The End of Poverty, Sachs argue that if the rich world had committed $195 billion in foreign aid per year between 2005 & 2025, poverty could have been entirely eliminated by the end of this period.

But there are others, equally vocal, who believe that all of Sach’s answers are wrong. William Easterly, who battles Sachs from New York University at the other end of Manhattan, has become one of the most influential anti-­aid public figures, following the publication of two books, The Elusive Quest for Growth and The White Man’s burden. Dambisa Moyo, an economists who previously worked at Goldman Sachs and at the World Bank, has joined her voice to Easterly’s with her recent book, Dead Aid. Both argue that, aid does more bad than good: It prevents people from searching for their own solutions, while corrupting and undermining local institutions and creating a self-­perpetuating lobby of aid agencies. The best bet for poor countries is to rely on one simple idea: When markets are free and the incentives are right, people can find ways to solve their problem. They do not need handouts, from foreigners or from their own governments. In this sense, the aid pessimists are actually quite optimistic about the way the world works. According to Easterly, there are no such things as poverty trap.

Q.1 According to the passage the nature of relation between poverty and lack of investment is:­

a) One sided

b) Linear

c) Cyclic

d) Tangential

 

Q.2 Which of the following has been suggested as an idea to end poverty in the passage above?

1. Democratic Institutions

2. Free market economics & liberalism

3. Financial Assistance by the rich

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:­

a) 1 & 2 only

b) 2 & 3 only

c) 1 & 3

d) All of the above

 

Q.3 Which of the following can be logically inferred from the passage above?

a) Jeffrey Sachs is hopeful about the elimination of poverty.

b) William Easterly is hopeful about the elimination of poverty

c) Both Easterly and Sachs are optimistic about elimination of poverty and suggest similar measures

d) Both Easterly and Sachs are optimistic about elimination of poverty and suggest diagonally opposite measures

 

Q.4 The author of the passage seems to suggest that :­

a) Aid is the way to go for ending poverty

b) Free market is the most suitable model for ending poverty

c) There are more ways than one to fight poverty

d) There are no signs of end of poverty in near times

 

Q.5 On a certain planet, if “bring me water” is represented by NET, “water is cold” is represented by TSO then what will be the code for “Bring Cold Water” ?

a) TEO

b) EON

c) NST

d) Either (A) or (C)

Q.6 Three friends, returning from a movie, stop to eat at a restaurant. After dinner, they paid their bills and were served mints on the table. Ram took 1/3rd of the mints, but returned four as he felt he had taken too much. Shyam then took 1/4th of what was left but returned three for similar reasons. Ravi then took half of the remainder but threw two back into the bowl. The bowl now had only 17 mints left. How many mints were originally in the bowl?

a) 38

b) 31

c) 41

d) None of these

 

Q.7 The height of a certain flag pole is 30 feet. The pole surface has been greased to make it slippery to prevent monkeys from climbing the pole. A monkey attempts to climb the pole. It climbs 3 feet every second but slips down 2 ft in the next second. When will the monkey reach the top of the flag pole.

a) 56 secs

b) 27 secs

c) 60 secs

d) 55 secs

 

Q.8 In a building with 7 floors ­ there is exactly one floor between Bengali and Tamilian. The Bengali lives on the higher floor. The Marathi lives on the floor next to the Punjabi. The Gujarati does not live on the topmost floor. The Keralite lives in the same building. Assume that nobody lives on the ground floor. If the Bengali stays on the fifth floor, then which among the following is correct?

a) the Gujarati stays on the fourth floor

b) the Marathi stays on the second floor

c) The Punjabi stays on the sixth floor

d) The Tamilian is on the floor next to the Keralite

Categories
Saturday CSAT Quiz

[Solutions] Saturday CSAT Quiz #13

saturday-solution

[SOLUTIONS]

Directions: Read the passage and answer the items that follow. Your answers to these items should be based on the passage only.

When India became independent in 1947 after two centuries of colonial rule, it immediately adopted a firmly democratic political system, with multiple parties, freedom of speech, and extensive political rights. The famines of the British era disappeared, and steady economic growth replaced the economic stagnation of the Raj. The growth of the Indian economy has quickened further over the last three decades and become the second fastest amongst large economies. Despite a recent dip, it is still one of the highest in the world.

Although this growth has been rapid, making it sustainable remains an important, although achievable, goal for India. India’s leading economists argue that the country’s main problems lie in the lack of attention paid to the essential needs of the people, especially of the poor, and often of women. There have been major failures of measures both to foster participatory growth and to make good use of the public resources generated by economic growth to enhance people’s living conditions. There is also a continued inadequacy of social services such as schooling and medical care as well as of physical services such as safe water, electricity, drainage, transportation and sanitation. In the long run, even the feasibility of high economic growth is threatened by the underdevelopment of social and physical infrastructure and the neglect of human capabilities; in contrast with the Asian approach of simultaneous pursuit of economic growth and human development, as pioneered by Japan, South Korea, and China.

In a democratic system, which India has great reason to value, addressing these failures requires not only significant policy rethinking by the government, but also a clearer public understanding of the abysmal extent of social and economic deprivations in the country. The deep inequalities in Indian society tend to constrict public discussion, confining it largely to the lives and concerns of the relatively affluent.

Q.1 After 200 years of British rule, Independent India adopted resolutely itself:

1. To adapt to an egalitarian political system.

2. The single party system

3. Freedom of speech

4. Far­reaching political privileges

Select the correct answer using the codes given below

a) 1,2, 3 and 4

b) 2 and 4 only

c) 1, 2 and 3 only

d) 1, 3 and 4 only

Solution. All these options can be found in the 1st 2 lines of the passage.

Answer-[D]

 

Q.2 Which of the following indicates the end of the colonial era of British in India?

1. The disappearance of the continual famines that were striking India.

2. India began to witness growth in her economy.

3. Rank at number two in the list of fastest growing economies in the world.

 Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

a) 1 and 2 only

b) 1 only

c) 2 and 3 only

d) All the above

Solution. Statement 3 is wrong because the rank was witnessed in last 3 decades, not during the end of British era, while the statement 1 and 2 are mentioned to show that British era was disappearing from the country.

Ans-[A]

 

Q.3 Which of the following is/are suggested by the economists to address the problems existing in India?

1. Disregarding of the essential needs of the people.

2. Let­down to boost progress and to make good use of the civic assets.

3. Having sound knowledge concerning the deprivations of humans in India

 Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

a) 2 and 3 only

b) 3 only

c) 1 and 3 only

d) 1 and 2 only

Solution. Statement 3 is correct because only with sound knowledge of people’s need, the government can take care of people’s poor living condition and make proper use of public resources.

Ans-[B]

 

Q.4 Vidya is selling apples at 25% cheaper than Shashi and 25% dearer than Vinutha. By how much percentage, Vinutha’s apples are cheaper than Shashi’s?

a) 30%

b) 50%

c) 40%

d) 60%

Solution. Let 100 be the price of Apples of Shashi. Then Vidya is selling at 75 i.e. 25% cheaper than Shashi. Vidya’s apples are 25% dearer than Vinutha’s. i.e Vidya’s apples are 1.25 times more than Vinutha’s apples. If 1.25 times = 75, 1 time = ?
Vinutha’s apples = 75/1.25 = 60

Therefore Vinutha’s apples are 40% cheaper than Shahi’s.

Ans-[C]

 

Q.5 Two friends Kavya and Lakshmi are talking to each other face to face. It is the time of the day before sunset. If Lakshmi’s shadow is exactly to her right, which direction is Kavya facing?

a) East

b) South

c) North

d) West

Solution. During Sunset, Sun is in the west and Lakshmi’s shadow is towards her right, she should be facing north. Then Kavya should be facing South.

Ans-[B]

 

Q.6 The first and 7th letters of the word INTERCHANGED are interchanged, similarly the 2nd and 8th, 3rd and 9th and so on. What is the 6th letter of the word after interchanging?

a) C

b) E

c) D

d) G

Solution. The original word is INTERCHANGED.

After interchanging of the letters in the said manner, the word will be

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

I

N

T

E

R

C

H

A

N

G

E

D

H

A

N

G

E

D

I

N

T

E

R

C

The 6th letter of the new word is D.

Ans-[C]

 

Q.7 A student multiplies a number by 8 instead of dividing it by 8. The answer he got was 192. What should be the answer if he had done the calculation correctly?

a) 2

b) 3

c) 4

d) 1

Solution. The answer he got is 192. So the he multiplied with 8 is 192/8 = 24. If he had divided 24 by 8 the answer would have been 3.

Ans-[B]

Categories
Saturday CSAT Quiz

Saturday CSAT Quiz #13

 

[QUESTIONS]saturday

Directions: Read the passage and answer the items that follow. Your answers to these items should be based on the passage only.

When India became independent in 1947 after two centuries of colonial rule, it immediately adopted a firmly democratic political system, with multiple parties, freedom of speech, and extensive political rights. The famines of the British era disappeared, and steady economic growth replaced the economic stagnation of the Raj. The growth of the Indian economy has quickened further over the last three decades and become the second fastest amongst large economies. Despite a recent dip, it is still one of the highest in the world.

Although this growth has been rapid, making it sustainable remains an important, although achievable, goal for India. India’s leading economists argue that the country’s main problems lie in the lack of attention paid to the essential needs of the people, especially of the poor, and often of women. There have been major failures of measures both to foster participatory growth and to make good use of the public resources generated by economic growth to enhance people’s living conditions. There is also a continued inadequacy of social services such as schooling and medical care as well as of physical services such as safe water, electricity, drainage, transportation and sanitation. In the long run, even the feasibility of high economic growth is threatened by the underdevelopment of social and physical infrastructure and the neglect of human capabilities; in contrast with the Asian approach of simultaneous pursuit of economic growth and human development, as pioneered by Japan, South Korea, and China.

In a democratic system, which India has great reason to value, addressing these failures requires not only significant policy rethinking by the government, but also a clearer public understanding of the abysmal extent of social and economic deprivations in the country. The deep inequalities in Indian society tend to constrict public discussion, confining it largely to the lives and concerns of the relatively affluent.

Q.1 After 200 years of British rule, Independent India adopted resolutely itself:

1. To adapt to an egalitarian political system.

2. The single party system

3. Freedom of speech

4. Far­reaching political privileges

Select the correct answer using the codes given below

a) 1,2, 3 and 4

b) 2 and 4 only

c) 1, 2 and 3 only

d) 1, 3 and 4 only

 

Q.2 Which of the following indicates the end of the colonial era of British in India?

1. The disappearance of the continual famines that were striking India.

2. India began to witness growth in her economy.

3. Rank at number two in the list of fastest growing economies in the world.

 Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

a) 1 and 2 only

b) 1 only

c) 2 and 3 only

d) All the above

 

Q.3 Which of the following is/are suggested by the economists to address the problems existing in India?

1. Disregarding of the essential needs of the people.

2. Let­down to boost progress and to make good use of the civic assets.

3. Having sound knowledge concerning the deprivations of humans in India

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

a) 2 and 3 only

b) 3 only

c) 1 and 3 only

d) 1 and 2 only

 

Q.4 Vidya is selling apples at 25% cheaper than Shashi and 25% dearer than Vinutha. By how much percentage, Vinutha’s apples are cheaper than Shashi’s?

a) 30%

b) 50%

c) 40%

d) 60%

 

Q.5 Two friends Kavya and Lakshmi are talking to each other face to face. It is the time of the day before sunset. If Lakshmi’s shadow is exactly to her right, which direction is Kavya facing?

a) East

b) South

c) North

d) West

 

Q.6 The first and 7th letters of the word INTERCHANGED are interchanged, similarly the 2nd and 8th, 3rd and 9th and so on. What is the 6th letter of the word after interchanging?

a) C

b) E

c) D

d) G

 

Q.7 A student multiplies a number by 8 instead of dividing it by 8. The answer he got was 192. What should be the answer if he had done the calculation correctly?

a) 2

b) 3

c) 4

d) 1