Incredible India: Facts & Case Studies

I am starting this thread for everyone to know about diverse features of Incredible India. It is said that India is diverse because historically different regions of India have been living completely isolated from one another, and evolved to become entirely unique. 

Here we can contribute and let everyone know about our respective States. 

We can do it according to topics in syllabus, e.g., first Art & Culture of State, then History of state, then social structure, geographical features, tourist attractions, political situation, unique civil society efforts, schemes, various social indicators, economic structure, industries, ecological efforts, biodiversity, security challenges, case studies for ethics from the State, etc.

And if possible, we can give headings like "State/Topic", for instance, if I want to talk about Art and Culture of Bihar, then I will give heading "Bihar/ Art & Culture".

#Unity_in_diversity

#Incredible_India

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There was this series run by Government of Ek bharat. PIB uploaded several pictures on the FB page. I shall share some. Had posted it earlier on Factoids Thread. 
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@upsc2020 Thanks. Appreciate your effort:+1:

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Assam is the only state which produces Golden Mugga Silk in India. Mugga culture belongs to erstwhile Assam culture. The state is also the largest producer of tea in India.
Naadan_Parinda, Anjali8
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Maharashtra

Dhangari Gaja dance is performed by shepherds to please their God Bhiruba and to get his blessings. This dance depicts the tales of the birth of God Bhiruba. 

Naadan_Parinda, Anjali8
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Uttarakhand

HurkaBaul is a dance form performed during maize&paddy cultivation. It is in more of a storytelling style where a singer incorporates heroic stories of battles in his song & the dancers enact the stories with the help of their moves.


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@Upsc_2020 Thank you for sharing these. Really helpful.  

upsc2020, Shuaibahmed
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PUNJAB/ Sikh Architecture:

-Gurudwaras

-Multiplicity of Chhatris (Kiosk)

-used fluted dome structure at top with brass and copper guild covering.

-Example- Golden temple, Amritsar. (here, covering is of pure gold).

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IVC/ Lothal

First discovered in 1954, Lothal was excavated from 1955-1960 by S R Rao of the Archaeological Survey of India

Interestingly, the name ‘Lothal’ comes from the local name of the place, roughly translated to ‘Mound of the Dead’ in Gujarati; Mohenjo-daro, 670 km from Lothal, means the same in Sindhi.

Naadan_Parinda, Dora-the_Explorer
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Bihar/ Art & Culture 

Madhubani/ Mithila painting

  • It was in use in Mithila region for long time but discovered and known to world after 1935 earthquake through a British officer Archer.
  • The paintings were originally done on walls coated with mud and cow dung. These were traditionally done in Kohbar ghar or the nuptial chamber.
  • Originally the paintings depicted an assembly of symbolic images of the lotus plant, the bamboo grove, fishes, birds and snakes in union. These images represented fertility and proliferation of life.
  • The divine beings are positioned centrally in the frame while their consorts and floral motifs form the background. The human figures are mostly abstract and linear in form.
  • The coloring is of two styles – Kachni (hatching) and Bharni (shading.) Kachni uses delicate fine lines to fill the painting and not much color is used. Bharni (shading) uses solid colors to shade and fill the pictures. It uses black outlines filled with vibrant colors.
  • The art had been practiced among the upper castes. But now every one is involved because of it becoming famous after the govt's efforts in 1970s by India gandhi.
  • Famous place: Jitwarpur (a famous village) Madhubani, Darbhanga.


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Bihar/ Art & Culture 

Manjusha/ Angika Art

  • Scroll painting (based on Folklore of Bihula- Bishari), practiced in Bhagalpur, Bihar.
  • Discovered and known to the world after 1935 Earthquake through British official Archer (along with Madhubani painting).
  • The Sanskrit word “Manjusa” means a box and Manjusas are temple shaped boxes, made of bamboo, Jute-Straw and Paper, inside which the devotees keep their ceremonial materials. These boxes are however illustrated with paintings that tell a tale.
  • This Art was practiced by only 2 families: Kumbhakar caste and Malakar caste.
  • The outline is first drawn and then filled in. Everything is drawn freehand. Pink, Green, Yellow are the three colours that are used in this Art.
  • All the characters and any human form are depicted in the form of English letter ‘X’ with limbs drawn with linear and uniform bold lines. For decoration, wavy lines are used. Five types of borders are used: Lehriya, Belpatra, Sarp ki ladi, Tribhuj and Mokha.

Fig: Painting of birth of Mansa from Shiva’s hair in Manjusha Art 
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Bihar/ Art & Culture 


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Bihar/ Art & Culture 

Tikuli Art


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Bihar/ NGO, governance case study 

Mission Gunvatta

In April 2013, the Government of Bihar announced an innovative policy called 'Mission Gunvatta' to improve learning outcomes amongst students attending elementary government schools. 

The programme had two components. 
  1. The first focused on strengthening governance and school processes. 

  2. The second component was an effort to strengthen the pedagogy by re-grouping children in standards three to five according to their learning levels rather than age, and provide them with remedial education for two hours during the school day. This was complemented by a clearly defined target of achievement.

This was implemented on pilot basis in partnership with a prominent education NGO, Pratham.

These experiments were designed to build local administrative capacity to support schools from the bottom-up by investing in Cluster Resource Centre Coordinators (CRCC). 

[The post of CRCC was carved out in late 1990s to create a platform for schools and teachers to receive regular, continuous teaching support.]

Although launched with much fanfare, the programme was short lived.

The programme’s design and the possibility of success depended on the bottom- up approach. In which, CRCCs needed to spend substantive amount of time in schools, understanding classroom practices, identifying student learning levels and engaging with teachers. But they spend 10-20 % of their time inside classrooms, and rest of the time checking registers to collect data required by their superiors. 

This legalistic Culture ie., hierarchy and strict adherence to rules and procedures has created a work environment where they act as passive rule followers rather than active facilitator of learning in schools.

Recent works on organisational Culture and management practices suggest change in management practices such as greater discretion with robust feedback loops through platforms for regular interaction between peers and superiors. 
Dora-the_Explorer, upsc2020
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