[Answered] Analyze the challenges faced by resource-constrained countries in providing quality treatment to HIV-positive individuals. How can international partnerships and agreements help in addressing these challenges?

Introduction: Describe what is HIV & AIDS.

Body: What are the challenges faced by developing countries & how can international partnerships help in dealing with the epidemic?

Conclusion: Way forward.

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is a virus that attacks cells that help the body fight infection, making a person more vulnerable to other infections and diseases while Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is the most advanced stage of HIV infection. At present there is no effective cure for HIV, but HIV can be controlled. The medicine used to treat HIV is called antiretroviral therapy or ART. According to WHO, there were about 37.9 million affected by HIV by the end of 2018, and 1.7 million were newly infected by it in the same year. According to the National Aids Control Organisation, in India, over 21 lakh people were living with HIV in 2017 with the highest cases in Maharashtra, followed by Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Telangana, and Tamil Nadu.

Challenges faced by Resource-Constrained Countries:

  • Inadequate infrastructure: Comprehensive HIV/AIDS care is challenging to provide in many resource-constrained nations due to a lack of suitable healthcare infrastructure, including facilities, skilled healthcare personnel, and diagnostic and treatment skills.
  • Budgetary constraints: HIV treatment programs receive limited support as a result of tight healthcare budgets. The cost of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and other required medications can make it impossible for many people and governments to afford continued treatment.
  • Social stigma: People may be discouraged from seeking testing, care, and treatment due to social stigma and prejudice against HIV-positive people. This frequently causes delayed diagnosis and impedes the effectiveness of treatment.
  • Lack of Awareness and Education: Limited public awareness and understanding of HIV transmission, prevention, and treatment can lead to misconceptions and misinformed behaviours, hindering efforts to control the epidemic.

How can global cooperation address in addressing these challenges?

  • Knowledge sharing: International partnerships facilitate the exchange of best practices, research findings, and treatment guidelines, enabling countries to benefit from each other’s experiences and successes.
  • Capacity Building: Collaborations offer training and capacity-building programs for healthcare workers, improving their ability to diagnose, treat, and manage HIV/AIDS patients effectively.
  • Advocacy and Awareness: International organizations raise global awareness about HIV/AIDS, reducing stigma and discrimination, and encouraging governments to prioritize the health and rights of HIV-positive individuals.
  • Finance: Initiatives like Global Fund, a partnership set up in 2002 to battle AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria will allow governments in developing nations to expand access to critical HIV services.


Global bodies like UNO, and WHO must establish frameworks and establish best practices to control the spread of the epidemic and improve the quality of life for those affected.

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