Answered: Mains Marathon – UPSC Mains Current Affairs Questions – May 10

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1. Man is by nature a political animal. Critically comment.(GS 4)

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  • Aristotle believed man was a “political animal” because he is a social creature with the power of speech and moral reasoning.
  • Hence it is evident that the state is a creation of nature, and that manis by nature a political animal.
  • Human beings are by nature political animals, because nature, which does nothing in vain, has equipped them with speech, which enables them to communicate moral concepts such as justice which are formative of the household and city-state.
  • Freedom is valued by every human assured by political structure for example democracies
  • Assertion of power by every individual is shared with other living species.
  • Survival: Human organised themselves politically to ensure survival from enemy
  • Territorial aspirations: Human organised themselves to fulfill territorial aspirations eg nazi concept of third reich
  • Power and reputation became a necessity in the society. This association of an individual with a society made him a political animal.
  • To have a stable society a set of rules in the form of constitution is the yard stick for the governance of the society. This gives him the rights and duties to live in a society. To rule or become a part of the ruled is his choice.
  • Human interests, traditions and values differ hugely across cultures and territory; striking environmental and cultural differences indeed make the case for the diversity of human interests.
  • Yet the tendency to be political remains consistent; where language, climate and lifestyle are so diverse, all humans have in common is the instinctive desire to socialise, bargain, debate and compromise.


  • They are social animals as can be seen from the solidarity provided to victims of any disaster and when people come together to effectively deal with it.
  • Peaceful and just living:-
    • Political nature of human developed to provide justice to all irrespective of their standing.
  • Not everyone is convinced by Aristotle’s account of mankind however, arguing that a communal view of humans is far too narrow.
    • Indeed, not everyone lives in a deliberative society, and perhaps not all humans would choose to live with others.
    • Critics may also argue the view that all humans strive for the same common goal and share the same interests is incredibly flawed.
  • Whilst politics is an interest or even fascination of many in modern society,there is a far greater population of those that are disillusioned or plainly uninterested in political.
  • Even Aristotle says there are divisions in humans. Some(slaves) cannot rule because they lack intelligence. So, the statement can be true in some context but not valid all the time.
  • The sheer fact that government, tribes, monarchs and militaries have even formed is proof enough that humans operate politically. Humans are essentially bargaining beings; making deals and weighing up costs and benefits, because by doing so is the best means to survive in a competing world.

    2. What are the faultlines which hindered the consolidation of India is still not complete, particularly in the north east, even after 70 years of independence?(GS 1)

Daily Editorial

Even after 70 years of Independence , North east India has been struggling internally to integrate into the Indian society.

Fault lines are:-

  • The Naga insurgence, which started in the 1950s, known as the mother of the Northeast insurgencies, is one of the oldest unresolved armed conflicts in the world.
  • The reasons for the respective conflicts are wide ranging from separatist movements, to inter-community, communal and inter-ethnic conflicts.
  • Geographic:-
    • North east India is separated from the Indian mainland. Accessibility and communication is also quite difficult.
    • It has hilly and steep terrain which is not suitable for settlements or infrastructure development.
    • Most of the area is under forest cover which doesn’t give much scope of setting up industries.
  • Disputes:-
    • Areas like Arunachal have territorial claims being made by China which has not allowed us to follow our developmental pursuits in full swing.
  • Social:
    • Ethinicity:-
      • Most people are of Tibeto-Burmese origin and people from North or south India do not connect with them.
    • Culture:-
      • Distinct language,demography and traditions.
    • Security:
      • There are demand for separate statehood now and then.
    • The representation of these states in parliament is quite dismal for instance, Arunachal Pradesh has just two seats Arunachal west and East in Lok sabha.

Way forward:

  • The key focus areas for the government in the ‘near-term’ should be health, education, infrastructure and implementation
  • Coordination and Implementation
  • The projects should be implemented with precision and efficiency. India cannot afford any further delay in the development of the region.

The ministry should cultivate ‘brand’ north east to woo the investment and tourism from India & abroad. The mantra of self-sustainability shall be imbibed in the region for uniform growth and development.

3. Discuss the internal security problem of Nagaland. What steps have been taken to address the issue?(GS 1)

Daily Editorial

Internal security problem of Nagaland:-

  • The Nagas believe that they were not part of India, whether through conquest or consent. The Nationalist Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN) is a Naga nationalist group operating in North-east India.
  • The main aim of the organisation is to establish a soverign state, “Nagalim” unifying all the areas inhabited by the Naga people in Northeast India and Burma.
  • Clashes among different tribal groups and factions
  • Parallel government
  • Multiple insurgent groups:
    • NSCN(I-M) and NSCN(K). Though they signed ceasefire agreements with Indian government, there are instances of violations particularly by NSCN(K).
  • Border issues with Assam:
    • This is resulting in frequent clashes and conflicts. This is hindering the development of Nagaland.
  • Criminal networks operating through Nagaland: Like Drug trafficking and currency forfeiting. Presence of underground groups that deal in extortion, arms, drugs, smuggling etc.
  • Goal of Nagalim creation:
    • Nagalim is creation of a region inhabited bu Nagas. This involves parts of Manipur, Assam and Arunachal pradesh.

Steps taken are:-

  • In 1947, Assam Governor signed a 9-point agreement which was almost immediately rejected by Phizo.
  • The Naga Hills, a district of Assam, was upgraded to a state in 1963, by also adding the Tuensang Tract that was then part of NEFA.
  • In April the next year, a Peace Mission was formed, and got the government and NNC to sign an agreement to suspend operations that September. But the NNC/NFG/NFA continued to indulge in violence, and after six rounds of talks, the Peace Mission was abandoned in 1967, and a massive counter-insurgency operation launched.
  • The govt of India and Naga insurgent group NSCN (IM) signed a peace accord in 2016. However, this is only a framework agreement. The details of the accord are yet to be fleshed out.
  • Initiative by centre to ensure ceasefire with NSCN(IM) by signing framework agreement
  • Deployment of assam rifles to check insurgency
  • Special category status to strenghten state governemt developemnt effort
  • Border management by fencing, flood lights etc.


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