Answers: Mains Marathon – UPSC Mains Current Affairs Questions – November 12, 2018

ForumIAS announcing GS Foundation Program for UPSC CSE 2025-26 from 18th June. Click Here for more information.


Q.1) What are the issues and challenges in comprehensive border management system? What are the recommendations of Madhukar Gupta Committee on border protection?



  1. the high-tech equipment being used did not provide all-round security and did not work in adverse climatic conditions
  2. significant gaps remain at rivers and nullahs running along the fences
  3. being manpower intensive challenges lie in providing rest and relief to BSF troops
  4. it is not an integrated system and failed to provide a common operating picture at all levels
  5. Different challenges ranging from infiltration to insurgency are prevalent at different borders of India making a common solution difficult
  6. rugged terrain makes movement difficult along the Indo-Myanmar border. It also provides a haven for insurgencies from across the border
  7. Persisting border disputes with several neighbors make the problem more severe
  8. deployment of multiple forces in the same area of operations;
  9. lack of any doctrinal concepts; designed for a ‘fire fighting’ approach rather than a ‘fire prevention’ or proactive approach;
  10. based on a strategy of ‘reaction and retaliation’ rather than on holistic response to a situation, resulting in stress and decision-making problems at the functional level;
  11. wastage of energy and efforts; and
  12. lack of coordination and synergy between the security management organizations.

Madhukar Gupta committee:

  1. Use scientific technology such as laser fencing along with increased vigil along riverine border areas.
  2. Where physical fencing is not feasible due to difficult terrain, use ground sensors and thermal imaging.
  3. The committee has given separate recommendations for four states which touch the international border with Pakistan as each state has separate topography and problems.
  4. Scientific methods like laser walls could not be installed in many infiltration-prone areas where due to treacherous terrain or marshy riverine fencing could not be installed so far.


Q.2) Ensuring absolute cyber security is no longer achievable; instead aim is to keep cyber security risks at manageable and acceptable levels. Comment


Challenges in achieving absolute cyber security:

  1. Changing nature of threats due to rapid advances in technology
  2. Difficulty to coordinate manpower and strategies over vast internet space
  3. Dependence of India on electronic imports for its domestic hardware needs
  4. cyber space provides advantages such as anonymity and deniability for the attacks made to information systems and information
  5. institutions and organizations are increasingly using information and communication systems in providing services
  6. difficult to detect the financiers and organizers of persistent and advanced cyber-attacks targeting information systems and data

Managing cyber security risks:

  1. strengthen the Regulatory Framework for ensuring a Secure Cyberspace Ecosystem
  2. improve visibility of integrity of ICT products and services by establishing infrastructure for testing & validation of security of such product
  3. create skilled workforce through capacity building skill development and training
  4. designate a national nodal agency to coordinate all matters related to cyber security in the country, with clearly defined roles and responsibility
  5. enable, educate and facilitate awareness of the regulatory framework


Q.3) How the tribal upsurge in post-independence is different? What are their impacts?  What steps are taken by government to control these upsurges?


Reasons for tribal struggles in post-independent India:

  1. Denial of rights over land due to development pressures
  2. Lack of share in political power and rights
  3. Benefits are often not shared with the tribals due to constant displacement and rehabilitation
  4. Mining and other projects in the forests affected their relation with the nature
  5. Lack of proper education and health facilities
  6. Lack of acknowledgement of diversity led to struggles in several North Eastern states


  1. Naxalism is a direct outcome of distorted development in tribal belt of the country
  2. Insurgencies in several North East states and demands for separate political rights

Steps taken by government:

  1. PESA
  2. 5h and 6th schedules in the constitution
  3. Forest Rights Act recognises their rights over
  4. Land Acquisition and Rehabilitation Act, 2013
  5. Several welfare schemes for the ST community from scholarships, subsidies to subsidised finance
  6. MSP for forest produce


Q.4) Today, every country is making efforts to save its historical monuments so that its cultural heritage does not suffer. What are the challenges in conservation of our culture heritage. Also mention steps taken by government to conserve our cultural heritage.


Challenges in conserving heritage:

  1. Lack of comprehensive data on the diversity of India cultural heritage
  2. Often, heritage structures face threat from developmental pressures
  3. Local communities are seldom involved in preserving and maintaining the structures
  4. Lack of budgets, vision and research on the tangible and intangible heritage
  5. Corruption at the lowest levels fails in preserving the heritage structures

Steps taken by government:

  1. HRIDAY scheme for developing heritage cities
  2. Development of tourist circuits
  3. ASI has created a portal for the Must-See monuments and archaeological sites of India under its protection
  4. National Virtual Library of India is a platform to bring together all the information generated in India and abroad about the country’s diversity
  5. ASI’s MOU with ISRO for satellite mapping of ASI monuments
  6. Swachh Bharat Swachh Smarak
Print Friendly and PDF