Civil Engineering Optional UPSC Syllabus

Civil Engineering Optional-Syllabus as per UPSC official syllabus 


1. Engineering Mechanics, Strength of Materials and Structural Analysis.
1.1 Engineering Mechanics :
Units and Dimensions, SI Units, Vectors, Concept of Force, Concept of particle and rigid
body. Concurrent, Non- Concurrent and parallel forces in a plane, moment of force
free body diagram, conditions of equilibrium, Principle of virtual work, equivalent force
First and Second Moment of area, Mass moment of Inertia.
Static Friction.
Kinematics and Kinetics:
Kinematics in cartesian Co-ordinates, motion under uniform and non-uniform
acceleration, motion under gravity. Kinetics of particle : Momentum and Energyprinciples, collision of elastic bodies, rotation of rigid bodies.

1.2 Strength of Materials :
Simple Stress and Strain, Elastic constants, axially loaded compression members, Shear
force and bending moment, theory of simple bending, Shear Stress distribution across
cross sections, Beams of uniform strength.
Deflection of beams: Mecaulay’s method, Mohr’s Moment area method, Conjugate beam
method, unit load method. Torsion of Shafts, Elastic stability of columns, Euler’s,
Rankine’s and Secant formulae.

1.3 Structural Analysis :
Castiglianio’s theorems I and II, unit load method, of consistent deformation applied to
beams and pin jointed trusses. Slope-deflection, moment distribution.
Rolling loads and Influences lines : Influences lines for Shear Force and Bending
moment at a section of a beam. Criteria for maximum shear force and bending Moment in
beams traversed by a system of moving loads. Influences lines for simply supported
plane pin jointed trusses.
Arches : Three hinged, two hinged and fixed arches, rib shortening and temperature
Matrix mehods of analysis : Force method and displacement method of analysis of
indeterminate beams and rigid frames.
Plastic Analysis of beams and frames : Theory of plastic bending, plastic analysis, statical
method, Mechanism method.
Unsymmetrical bending : Moment of inertia, product of inertia, position of Neutral Axis
and Principal axes, calculation of bending stresses.
2. Design of Structures : Steel, Concrete and Masonry Structures.

2.1 Structural Steel Design :
Structural steel : Factors of safety and load factors. Riveted, bolted and welded joints and
connections. Design of tension and compression members, beams of built up section,
riveted and welded plate girders, gantry girders, stancheons with battens and lacings.

2.2 Design of Concrete and Masonry Structures :
Concept of mix design. Reinforced Concrete : Working Stress and Limit State method of
design— Recommendations of I. S. codes. Design of one way and two way slabs,
stair-case slabs, simple and continuous beams of rectangular, T and L sections.
Compression members under direct load with or without eccentricity.
Cantilever and Counter fort type retaining walls.
Water tanks : Design requirements for Rectangular and circular tanks resting on ground.
Prestressed Concrete : Methods and systems of prestressing, anchorages, Analysis
and design of sections for flexure based on working stress, loss of prestress.
Design of brick masonry as per I. S. Codes
3. Fluid Mechanics, Open Channel Flow and Hydraulic Machines :
3.1 Fluid Mechanics :
Fluid properties and their role in fluid motion, fluid statics including forces acting on
plane and curve surfaces.
Kinematics and Dynamics of Fluid flow : Velocity and accelerations, stream lines,
equation of continuity, irrotational and rotational flow, velocity potential and stream
Continuity, momentum, energy equation, Navier Stokes equation, Euler’s equation of
motion, application to fluid flow problems, pipe flow, sluice gates, weirs.
3.2 Dimensional Analysis and Similitude: Buckingham’s Pi-theorem, dimensionless

3.3 Laminar Flow :
Laminar flow between parallel, stationary and moving plates, flow through tube.
3.4 Boundary layer :
Laminar and turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate, laminar sub-layer, smooth and
rough boundaries, drag and lift.
Turbulent flow through pipes : Characteristics of turbulent flow, velocity distribution and
variation of pipe friction factor, hydraulic grade line and total energy line.

3.5 Open Channel Flow :
Uniform and non-uniform flows, momentum and energy correction factors, specific
energy and specific force, critical depth, rapidly varied flow, hydraulic jump, gradually
varied flow, classification of surface profiles, control section, step method of integration
of varied flow equation.

3.6 Hydraulic Machines and Hydropower :
Hydraulic turbines, types classification, Choice of turbines performance parameters,
controls, characteristics, specific speed.
Principles of hydropower development.

4. Geotechnical Engineering :
Soil Type and Structure—gradation and particle size distribution—consistency limits.
Water in soil—capillary and structural—effective stress and pore water
pressure—permeability concept—filed and laboratory determination of
permeability—Seepage pressure—quick sand conditions—Shear strength
determination—Mohr Coulomb concept.
Compaction of soil—Laboratory and filed test.
Compressibility and consolidation concept— consolidation theory—consolidation
settlement analysis.
Earth pressure theory and analysis for retaining walls, Application for sheet piles and
Braced excavation.
Bearing capacity of soil—approaches for analysis- Filed tests—settlement
analysis—stability of slope of earth walk.
Subsuface exploration of soils—methods
Foundation—Type and selection criteria for foundation of structures—Design criteria for
foundation—Analysis of distribution of stress for footings and pile—pile group
action—pile load test.
Ground improvement techniques.


1. Construction Technology, Equipment, Planning and Management
1.1 Construction Technology
Engineering Materials :
Physical properties of construction materials with respect to their use in
construction—Stones, Bricks and Tiles; Lime, Cement, different types of Mortars and
Specific use of ferro cement, fibre reinforced C. C., High stength concrete.
Timber; Properties defects—common preservation treatments.
Use and selection of materials for specific use like Low Cost Housing, Mass Housing, High
Rise Buildings.

1.2 Construction :
Masonry principles using Brick, stone, Blocks—construction detailing and strength
Types of plastering, pointing, flooring, roofing and construction features.
Common repairs in buildings.
Principle of functional planning of building for residents and specific use—Building code
Basic principles of detailed and approximate estimating—specification writing and rate
analysis-principles of valuation of real property.
Machinery for earthwork, concreting and their specific uses—Factors affecting selection
of equipments—operating cost of equipments.

Construction activity—schedules—organization for construction industry—Quality
assurance principles.
Use Basic principle of network—analysis in form of CPM and PERT—their use in
construction monitoring, Cost optimization and resource allocation.
Basic principles of Economic analysis and methods.
Project profitability—Basic principles of Boot approach to financial planning-simple toll
fixation criterions.

2. Surveying and Transportation Engineering
2.1 Surveying : Common methods and instruments for distance and angle measurement for
CE work—their use in plane table, traverse survey, levelling work, triangulation,
contouring and topographical map.
Basic principles of photogrammetry and remote sensing.
2.2 Railways Engineering : Permanent way—components, types and their
function-Functions and Design constituents of turn and crossing— Necessity of
geometric design of track—Design of station and yards.
2.3 Highway Engineering :
Principles of Highway alignments—classification and geometrical design elements and
standards for Roads.
Pavement structure for flexible and rigid pavements—Design principles and
methodology of pavements.
Typical construction methods and standards of materials for stabilized soil, WBM,
Bituminous works and CC roads.
Surface and sub-surface drainge arrangements for roads—culvert structures.
Pavement distresses and strengthening by overlays.
Traffic surveys and their application in traffic planning—Typical design features for
channelized, intersection rotary etc.—signal designs—standard Traffic signs and

3. Hydrology, Water Resources and Engineering :
3.1 Hydrology :
Hydrological cycle, precipitation, evaporation, transpiration, infiltration, overland flow,
hydrograph, flood frequency analyses, flood routing through a reservoir, channel flow
routing—Muskingam method.
3.2 Ground Water flow :
Specific yield, storage coefficient, coefficient of permeability, confined and unconfined
aquifers, aquifers, aquitards, radial flow into a well under confined and unconfined
3.3 Water Resources Engineering :
Ground and surface water resources, single and multipurpose projects, storage capacity
of reservoirs, reservoir losses, reservoir sedimentation.
3.4 Irrigation Engineering :
(i) Water requirements of crops : consumptive use, duty and delta, irrigation methods and
their efficiencies.
(ii) Canals : Distribution systems for cannal irrigation, canal capacity, canal losses, alignment
of main and distributory canals, most efficient section, lined canals, their design, regime
theory, critical shear stress, bed load.
(iii) Water logging : causes and control, salinity.
(iv) Canal structures : Design of head regulators, canal falls, aqueducts, metering flumes
and canal outlets.
(v) Diversion head work : Principles and design of weirs on permeable and impermeable
foundation, Khosla’s theory, energy dissipation.
(vi) Storage works : Types of dams, design, principles of rigid gravity stability analysis.
(vii) Spillways : Spillway types, energy dissipation.
(viii) River training : Objectives of river training, methods of river training.

4. Environmental Engineering
4.1 Water Supply :
Predicting demand for water, impurities of water and their significance, physical,
chemical and bacteriological analysis, waterborne diseases, standards for potable water.
4.2 Intake of Water :
Water treatment: principles of coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation; slow-, rapid-,
pressure-, filters; chlorination, softening, removal of taste, odour and salinity.
4.3 Sewerage Systems :
Domestic and industrial wastes, store sewage—separate and combined systems, flow
through sewers, design of sewers.
4.4 Sewage Characterisation :
BOD, COD, solids, dissolved oxygen, nitrogen and TOC. Standards of disposal in normal
water course and on land.
4.5 Sewage Treatment :
Working principles, units, chambers, sedimentation tank, trickling filters, oxidation
ponds, activated sludge process, septic tank, disposal of sludge, recycling of waste water.
4.6 Solid waste :
Collection and disposal in rural and urban contexts, management of long-term ill-effects.

5. Environmental pollution :
Sustainable development. Radioactive wastes and disposal. Environmental impact
assessment for thermal power plants, mines, river valley projects. Air pollution. Pollution
control acts.

Suggestive books for Civil engineering optional

  • Engineering Mechanics – Shames
  • Introduction to Mechanics of Solids
  • Basic and applied Fluid Mechanics-Garde
  • Surveying – Punmia
  • Strength of Material – V. N. Vazaram
  • Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering – A Singh and K R Arora
  • Strength and Materials -UC. Jindal
  • Strength of material – Gere and Timoshenko
  • Concrete Technology – M.S. Shetty
  • R.C.C. (WSM) – Shyal and Goyal
  • Mechanics for Engineers- B Johnson
  • Engineering Mechanics – Mchean
  • Limit State Design – Ram Chandra
  • R.C.C. (LSM) – A.K. Jain
  • Steel Structure – L.S. Negi
  • Soil Mechanics – K.R. Arora
  • Fluid Mechanics – Modi & Seth
  • Theory of Structure (Vol – II) – Vazirani and Ratwani
  • Irrigation Engineering – S.K. Garg
  • Prestress Concrete – N. Krishna Rajee
  • Engineering Hydrology – K. Subramanya
  • Engineering Mechanics by Irvin Shames
  • Strength of Materials By S. Ramamrutham
  • Intermediate Structural Analysis by CK Wang
  • Theory of Structures by S. Ramamrutham
  • Design of Steel Structures by S Duggal
  • Design of Steel Structures By N Subramanian
  • Prestressed Concrete by N Krishna Raju
  • Handbook Of Reinforced Concrete Design by SN Sinha
  • Basic and Applied Soil Mechanics by Gopal Ranjan and Rao
  • Building Construction by Arora and Bindra
  • Construction, Planning, and Management by UK Srivastava
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