[Answered] Analyze the challenges faced by India in achieving a doctor-patient ratio as recommended by WHO. Suggest measures to overcome these challenges.

Introduction: Give recent context to the question

Body: Highlight challenges in achieving recommended doctor-patient ratio and measures to overcome this.

Conclusion: Way forward

As per recent data given by the government to Parliament India’s doctor-patient ratio currently stands at 1:834 which is better than the WHO-prescribed norm of one doctor per 1,000 people. Still, the demand for doctors & medical education exceeds the supply in large parts of India particularly rural India.

Challenges faced by India in achieving this ratio

  • Shortage of Healthcare professionals: India is currently experiencing a serious scarcity of physicians and other healthcare workers. The country’s large population has healthcare needs that cannot be met by the infrastructure already in place.
  • Urban-Rural Disparities: A large number of healthcare workers are based in cities, which causes a dire shortage in rural areas. For rural populations, this means that access to healthcare services is insufficient.
  • Unequal Distribution: The distribution of medical professionals is not uniform among the states and areas. Healthcare inequities are exacerbated in certain regions, such as the South, where the doctor-to-patient ratio is higher than in North Indian states.
  • Medical Education Quality: The quality of medical education in India is a matter of concern. Many medical schools are understaffed and lack the faculty and resources needed to produce quality physicians.
  • Overburdened Healthcare System: The existing healthcare system is overburdened, leading to long waiting times and suboptimal care quality. This discourages doctors from working in the public sector.

Measures to Overcome Challenges:

  • Increase Medical College Capacity: India needs to invest in expanding the capacity of medical colleges to produce more doctors and healthcare professionals. This includes improving the infrastructure and faculty quality of existing institutions and establishing new ones. Despite the rapid expansion of medical colleges, the number of medical graduates per lakh population was 4.1, well below 6.2 in China, 6.9 in Israel, 8.5 in the US, and 13.1 in the UK.
  • Encourage Rural Service: Implement policies to incentivize healthcare professionals to work in rural areas. This can include offering loan forgiveness programs, higher salaries, and better living conditions in rural regions.
  • Telemedicine and Technology: Promote telemedicine and the use of technology to extend healthcare services to remote and underserved areas. This can help address the shortage of doctors in these regions.
  • Community Health Workers: Invest in training and deploying community health workers to provide preventive and primary care services in rural and underserved areas.
  • Health Insurance Coverage: Expand health insurance coverage to ensure that patients can access healthcare services without financial barriers, thereby increasing the demand for healthcare services.


Achieving the recommended doctor-patient ratio in India is a complex and long-term process, but by addressing these challenges and implementing these measures, the country can work toward providing better healthcare access to its population.

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