[Answered] Analyze the challenges faced by India in balancing its development priorities with its environmental commitments, especially in the context of its reliance on coal for energy needs. How does India’s position on coal at the international level reflect its domestic economic and energy realities?

Introduction: Give brief context to the question

Body: What are the challenges in balancing development goals and environmental commitments?

Conclusion: Way forward

Recently, on the sidelines of COP 28 In Dubai, India has reaffirmed its commitment to mitigating global warming while highlighting the fundamental tenets of its climate diplomacy: equity and justice. India has been unequivocal about the role of coal in the country’s economy and will not buckle under international pressure at the cost of national development.

Challenges in Balancing Development Priorities and Environmental Commitments

  • Energy Demand vs. Environmental Sustainability: India must balance its burgeoning energy needs to support economic growth with its obligations under international environmental agreements. It is difficult to strike a balance between the requirement for energy security and ecological practices.
  • Dependency on Coal: India’s energy demands are primarily met by coal, which presents a serious environmental risk because of carbon emissions, air pollution, and its role in climate change. This dependence makes achieving environmental goals more difficult.
  • Renewable Energy Transition: Infrastructure development and significant expenditures are needed to make the switch from coal to renewable energy sources. India must quickly change its energy mix without sacrificing its current rate of economic expansion.
  • Air Quality and Public Health: The utilization of coal leads to air pollution, which has an impact on public health. An important problem facing India is striking a balance between economic progress and the health and well-being of its people.

India’s Position on Coal at the International Level

  • Internal Economic Realities: India’s internal economic priorities are reflected in its international attitude on coal. Because of its accessibility and affordability, coal continues to be an essential part of India’s energy mix, especially for the country’s vast population with a variety of energy needs.
  • Poverty Alleviation and Energy Access: India highlights its commitment to ensuring that all of its residents, particularly those living in distant locations, have access to energy. Because it is a reasonably priced energy source, coal is essential for reducing energy poverty and promoting economic growth.
  • Financial and technology Barriers: India is investing in renewable energy, but the shift is being impeded by funding and technology issues. India needs international financing and technology transfer to speed its move away from coal.
  • Developmental Aspirations: India emphasizes the need for economic growth to pull millions out of poverty when arguing in international forums for the idea of “common but differentiated responsibilities.” This position asks for understanding from the international community on its continued use of coal while going through a transition.


India faces the difficult challenge of reconciling its environmental obligations with its socioeconomic goals, especially in light of its coal-dependent economy. The nation’s foreign policy is a reflection of its realistic approach, which emphasizes the need to address domestic economic and energy realities while understanding the difficulties of switching to greener energy sources. To promote sustainable development and make a significant contribution to global environmental goals, India must strike a balance between these interests.

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