[Answered] Analyze the challenges of horizontal sharing of the divisible tax pool in India, with a focus on the emerging economic divide between the northern and southern states. How can the principles of equity and efficiency be balanced in this context?

Introduction: What is tax devolution?

Body: Highlight challenges arising from horizontal sharing of tax pool between northern and southern states.

Conclusion: Way forward

Tax devolution is the process by which tax revenues are allocated between the union government and the state governments. It is a system set up by the Constitution to fairly and equally divide the revenue from specific taxes between the Union and the states. In India, the horizontal distribution of the divisible revenue pool presents several difficult and divisive issues, particularly in light of the growing economic gap between the northern and southern states.

Some of these challenges are

  • Political Factors: Due to their large population, northern states have a political sway that might lead to an unequal distribution of resources. Southern states with comparatively lower populations and stronger fiscal restraint may view this as unfair.
  • Historical reasons: Economic disparities have been caused by historical reasons such as differences in state policy and economic development. States that have made long-term investments in infrastructure, healthcare, and education typically do better than others.
  • Regional Economic Disparities: Southern states like Kerala, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu have higher per capita income and better human development indicators compared to northern states like Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, and Madhya Pradesh. This economic divide makes it difficult to achieve equity in the distribution of resources.
  • Fiscal Imbalances: Northern states often receive a larger share of central funds due to factors like population and poverty levels, which can create fiscal imbalances. However, this may not always align with their actual fiscal needs or economic potential, contributing to inefficiency in resource allocation.

Balancing Equity and Efficiency

  • Needs-Based Allocation: A needs-based formula that considers the unique developmental requirements of every state, including population, poverty levels, gaps in infrastructure, and social indicators, can be developed. This would guarantee a more fair allocation of resources.
  • Performance-Based Incentives: To encourage states to strengthen their budgetary restraint and allocate funds for human development, implement performance-based incentives. States may receive more funding if they demonstrate advancements in infrastructure, healthcare, and education.
  • Fiscal Responsibility and Accountability: Encouraging states to take actions that strengthen their budgets, such as cutting back on unnecessary spending and debt loads, to promote fiscal responsibility and accountability.
  • Cooperation among states: Encourage interstate collaboration on regional development initiatives to alleviate inequities. This can involve working together on infrastructure and industrial development projects as well as exchanging best practices.


To establish a just and efficient fiscal transfer system that promotes economic growth and lessens regional disparities, India must carefully consider how to strike a balance between efficiency and justice in the horizontal sharing of the divisible tax pool.

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