[Answered] Analyze the potential conflicts between personal data protection and the public interest in the context of journalism. What balance should be struck to protect individual privacy while ensuring transparency and accountability in governance?

Introduction: What is the DPDP Act?

Body: Highlight potential conflicts that could arise in journalism and how to strike a balance.

Conclusion: Way forward

India introduced its inaugural comprehensive data protection legislation, the Digital Personal Data Protection (DPDP) Act of 2023 which relies on user consent for personal data processing. The law grants fundamental rights like data access and deletion, imposes duties on corporations, and institutes a complaints mechanism for dispute resolution. Nonetheless, the legislation could potentially exert a subtle influence on journalistic freedom of expression.

Potential Conflicts

  • Journalists Depend on Personal Information: Research frequently entails gathering and utilizing people’s personal information, sometimes without their permission. This might include phone calls and bank records. Eg, It would be difficult for journalists to use data about MPs to publish the story as they will have to get MP’s consent.
  • Privacy Concerns: Unrestricted data collecting can result in threats, harassment, and harm to one’s reputation. People are entitled to be in charge of their data. DPDP Act empowers the government to call for information from any data processor in India, this may impact the confidentiality that journalists must maintain for their sources and research documents
  • Chilling Effect: Investigative journalism may be challenging due to stringent data privacy rules. Because of the possibility of legal consequences, journalists may be reluctant to pursue stories.

Finding Balance

  • Public Interest Test: Data protection laws should include provisions for a “public interest” test, enabling journalists to utilize personal data when their reporting uncovers misconduct or serves the public good.
  • Robust Ethical Codes: Journalistic organizations ought to have unambiguous ethical standards for gathering and using data. This guarantees ethical behaviour and safeguards the sources.
  • Informed Consent: Whenever possible, journalists should seek the informed consent of individuals before publishing personal information about them. This allows individuals to understand how their data will be used and to express any objections.
  • Relevance and Proportionality: Personal information should only be gathered and shared by journalists when it is directly related to the narrative and well-balanced in terms of importance. Sensationalism and needless prying into people’s personal lives should be avoided.


In the end, careful evaluation of ethical, legal, and professional norms is necessary to strike a balance between the protection of personal data and the public interest. Journalists are essential to maintaining accountability and openness in government, but they have a responsibility to do so responsibly, upholding people’s right to privacy while carrying out their public informational mandate.

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