[Answered] Critically assess the effectiveness of a security-centric approach in dealing with Pakistan-sponsored terrorism in Jammu and Kashmir. What alternative strategies can be employed?

Introduction: Contextual Introduction

Body: Assess the effectiveness of the security approach in dealing with terrorism in Jammu & Kashmir

Conclusion: Way forward

The ongoing issues of Pakistan-sponsored terrorism in Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) highlight the limitations of a security-centric approach and underline the need for a more nuanced strategy.

Achievements of a security-centric approach

  • Neutralization of Militants: The Indian security forces have successfully neutralized many high-profile militants, disrupting terrorist networks and reducing the immediate threat of attacks.
  • Deterrence: A strong military presence has deterred large-scale militant operations and kept militant activities in check to some extent.
  • Enhanced Security Measures: Improved surveillance, intelligence, and counter-insurgency operations have contributed to thwarting numerous potential attacks.

Limitations of a security-centric approach

  • Limited Scope: Focuses on neutralizing terrorists, neglecting root causes like socio-economic grievances and disenfranchisement, which fuel recruitment.
  • Humanitarian Cost: Military operations can lead to civilian casualties, alienating the population and creating a breeding ground for resentment.
  • Escalation Risk: Tit-for-tat actions can escalate tensions with Pakistan, leading to a wider conflict.

Alternative Strategies

  • Confidence-Building Measures: Implement measures to build trust between the government and the people of J&K, such as reducing military presence in civilian areas and releasing political prisoners.
  • Infrastructure Projects: Invest in infrastructure to create jobs and improve living standards, thereby reducing the appeal of militancy.
  • Skill Development: Focus on education and skill development to provide alternative livelihoods for the youth.
  • Community Engagement: Promote social and cultural initiatives that foster a sense of belonging and unity among the people of J&K.
  • Counter-Radicalization Programs: Implement programs that address extremist ideologies through community-led initiatives.
  • Judicial Reforms: Ensure timely and fair justice for victims of violence and human rights abuses.
  • Institutional Accountability: Hold security forces accountable for human rights violations to build trust with the local population.


A comprehensive strategy that includes political engagement, economic development, social initiatives, and international diplomacy is essential. This multifaceted approach can address the root causes of militancy, reduce tensions, and foster sustainable peace in the region.

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