[Answered] Discuss how internal migration influences the employment opportunities and challenges faced by women, especially in the context of India’s declining Female Labour Force Participation Rate (FLFPR).

Introduction: Give a brief context to the question

Body: Highlight the impact of internal migration on employment and the challenges faced by women.

Conclusion: Way forward

India’s internal migration trends present a complex picture for women, with potential for both increased opportunities and heightened challenges. These dynamics play a crucial role in understanding the ongoing decline in the Female Labour Force Participation Rate (FLFPR).

Impact of internal migration on employment opportunities

  • Urbanization and Economic Growth: Rural areas often struggle with limited economic opportunities, particularly for women who face agricultural displacement and fewer formal jobs. Migration to urban centres can offer access to diverse industries, service sectors, and potentially higher wages.
  • Skill development and upward mobility: Urban environments, through exposure to training programs and diverse work experiences, can equip women with new skills and enhance their employability. This can lead to upward mobility and better career prospects.
  • Greater autonomy and agency: Migration can offer women a chance to escape patriarchal restrictions and gain greater control over their lives and finances. This newfound autonomy can contribute to increased decision-making power and personal growth.


  • Gendered labour market segregation: Despite potential for diversity, urban labour markets often relegate women to specific sectors, like domestic work, informal employment, or low-wage manufacturing. These jobs can be precarious, offer limited benefits, and perpetuate gender-based inequalities.
  • Vulnerability and exploitation: Migrant women, especially those alone or without secure housing, are more susceptible to exploitation, harassment, and violence. Lack of social networks and legal awareness can further exacerbate their vulnerability.
  • Work-life balance and childcare: Balancing paid work with domestic responsibilities and childcare can be particularly challenging for migrant women, especially without adequate support systems. This can lead to reduced participation in the formal labour force.
  • Limited access to social services: Access to healthcare, education, and other essential services can be hampered for migrant women, particularly those living in informal settlements or lacking proper documentation. This can further restrict their economic and social mobility.


There are two drawbacks to internal migration for Indian women. It exposes them to vulnerabilities and perpetuates existing gender disparities, even while it offers the possibility of better livelihoods and empowerment. It is essential to comprehend these subtleties to develop strategies that both address the lowering of FLFPR and encourage women’s economic involvement. To establish a truly enabling environment for women to prosper in India’s workforce, a multifaceted approach is needed that addresses discriminatory labour practices, social norms, skills gaps, and inadequate social safety nets.

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