[Answered] Discuss the role of State governments in the implementation of NEP in higher education. Also, evaluate the effectiveness of the New Education Policy, especially in Jammu and Kashmir. What challenges does it face?

Introduction: Give brief context of NEP

Body: Highlight role of states in implementation of NEP & its progress in J&K.

Conclusion: Way forward.

NEP(National Education Policy) was approved by the cabinet in 2020 & is based on recommendations of the Kasturirangan and T.S.R Subramanian committees. NEP, 2020 emphasizes reforms in education at all levels from pre-primary to higher education. It aims to bring transformation in the education system of India in line with contemporary needs.

Role of State governments in the implementation of NEP in higher education:

  • States have a bigger pool of students: A recent Parliament report on NEP highlighted that of the 1,043 universities functioning in the country, 70% are under the State Act and that 94% of students are in State or private institutions with just 6% of students in Central higher educational institutions, stressing the importance of States in providing higher education.
  • Resource Allocation: State governments play a crucial role in allocating resources for higher education institutions within their respective states. This includes funding for infrastructure, faculty development, and research initiatives.
  • Curriculum & Pedagogy: State Governments have a vital role in making admission processes and curricula more inclusive, increasing the employability potential of higher education programs, and developing more degree courses taught in regional languages and bilingually.
  • Student welfare: State Governments can frame policies regarding financial assistance for the education of Socially and Economically Disadvantaged Groups (SEDGs), setting clear targets for higher Gross Enrolment Ratio for SEDGs, enhancing gender balance in admissions to HEIs, and strict enforcement of all no-discrimination and anti-harassment rules.

Effectiveness of the New Education Policy, especially in Jammu and Kashmir:

  • Diversification of Education: The NEP emphasizes a multidisciplinary approach, allowing students to choose from a wide range of subjects. Under this policy, no one will be forced to learn a particular language & students can choose the language according to their interests which can help students access diverse educational opportunities aligned with their interests.
  • National pattern of curriculum: With the adoption of NEP there will be a shift in academic sessions from November to March for school education & to July for the Higher Education Department (HED) session.  Examinations in the educational institutions will also be held simultaneously and the results will also be declared simultaneously so that the students can appear in the competitive examinations without any difficulty.

Challenges in the implementation of NEP in J&K

  • Socio-Political Issues: The region’s unique socio-political situation can impact the implementation of educational reforms. Ensuring a conducive environment for education is crucial.
  • Faculty Development: Ensuring that faculty members are trained and equipped to implement the NEP’s recommendations can be a challenge, especially in valley areas.


Jammu and Kashmir became the first state to implement NEP 2020 & is witnessing a paradigm shift in the methods of teaching, leading to lifelong learning opportunities for students. State governments, in collaboration with central agencies, have to play a vital role in the successful implementation of the policy.

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