[Answered] Discuss the strategic importance of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the context of India’s national security and its stance in the Indo-Pacific region. How have historical events shaped India’s policy towards these islands?

Introduction: Describe briefly about Andaman & Nicobar Islands

Body: Highlight the strategic importance of islands and historical events that shaped India’s policy

Conclusion: Way forward

The Andaman and Nicobar Islands (ANI) hold significant strategic value as they are situated along one of the busiest sea lanes globally. This allows India to keep an eye on the movement of people and goods across the Strait of Malacca, which is crucial for trade and oil shipments throughout the Indo-Pacific region, from the South China Sea (Pacific Ocean) to the Andaman Sea (Indian Ocean).

Strategic Importance

  • Military Significance: The islands allow the Indian military to quickly deploy forces and conduct surveillance throughout the Indian Ocean region by acting as a forward operating base.
  • Natural Resources: The islands are rich in natural resources, such as stocks of gas and oil, which support India’s energy security.
  • Marine Domain Awareness: Because of its location, India can monitor marine traffic, improve maritime domain awareness, and combat illegal activities like smuggling and piracy.
  • Regional Connectivity: The islands are essential to India’s “Act East” policy, which aims to improve connectivity and fortify relations with countries in Southeast Asia.

India’s Indo-Pacific Stance

  • Countering China: The islands act as a counterbalance to China’s growing influence in the region. Their development strengthens India’s position in the strategic competition.
  • Security Cooperation: The ANI can be a hub for regional cooperation on maritime security issues like piracy and disaster relief, fostering stronger ties with Southeast Asian nations.

Historical Context

  • Colonial Legacy: The Andaman and Nicobar Islands were under British colonial rule until India gained independence in 1947. During World War II, the islands witnessed significant military activity and served as a crucial outpost against Japanese advances.
  • Strategic Significance during the Cold War: The islands gained further strategic importance during the Cold War, with India establishing military installations to counter perceived threats from hostile powers in the region.
  • Tsunami Disaster: The devastating Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004 highlighted the vulnerability of the islands and underscored the need for enhanced disaster preparedness and infrastructure development.


A key component of India’s Indo-Pacific strategy and national security is the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. India has the potential to guarantee a stable and safe marine environment in the Indo-Pacific by capitalizing on their strategic location and promoting regional collaboration.

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