[Answered] Evaluate the effectiveness of the Swachh Bharat Mission in achieving its goals of sanitation and waste management across urban and rural India. Discuss the challenges faced in its implementation.

Introduction: Contextual Introduction

Body: Highlight achievements and challenges faced in the implementation of SBM.

Conclusion: Way forward

The Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) has been a significant initiative in India, aiming for a clean and open defecation-free (ODF) India.


  • Rural Sanitation Coverage: The Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) has achieved remarkable success in rural areas, with reported toilet access skyrocketing from under 40% in 2014 to nearly 100% in 2020. This monumental effort has resulted in the construction of millions of toilets, effectively reducing open defecation rates.
  • Improved Health Outcomes: Studies have indicated a positive correlation between the SBM and improved public health outcomes. Reduced incidences of diarrhea, malaria, and child mortality underscore the significant impact of the mission on community well-being.
  • Behavioral Change: The SBM has successfully initiated a cultural shift towards cleanliness through extensive public awareness campaigns. These efforts have fostered a heightened sense of hygiene consciousness within many communities.


  • Sustainability of Toilets: Despite the massive infrastructure development, concerns have arisen regarding the quality and maintenance of constructed toilets. Without adequate upkeep, there’s a risk that these facilities may deteriorate and become unusable over time.
  • Urban Sanitation: While progress in rural areas is notable, urban sanitation efforts have faced challenges, particularly in slums and peri-urban areas where access to adequate public toilet facilities remains limited.
  • Waste Management: The SBM primarily focused on toilet construction, overshadowing the need for proper waste disposal infrastructure, especially in rural areas. As a result, effective waste management practices remain lacking in many regions.
  • Social Issues: Deep-rooted social stigmas and cultural practices continue to perpetuate open defecation in certain pockets, hindering efforts towards behavioral change. Overcoming these barriers requires sustained and targeted interventions.
  • Financial Sustainability: The long-term maintenance of sanitation infrastructure necessitates consistent funding. Ensuring proper budgetary allocation and financial sustainability is imperative for the continued success of sanitation initiatives under the SBM.


The Swachh Bharat Mission has undoubtedly made significant strides towards a cleaner India. However, addressing the challenges and focusing on waste management, urban sanitation, and toilet maintenance is crucial for long-term success.

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