[Answered] Evaluate the institutional readiness for the implementation of the new criminal codes in India. What are the potential challenges? (250 words)

Introduction: Contextual Introduction

Body: Institutional readiness & challenges of new criminal codes.

Conclusion: Way Forward

The Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita (BNS), the Bharatiya Nagarik Suraksha Sanhita (BNSS), and the Bharatiya Sakshya Adhiniyam (BSA) will replace the Indian Penal Code, 1860 (IPC), the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (CrPC), and the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 (IEA) respectively.

Evaluation of Institutional Readiness

  • Vague Provisions: The ambiguity in certain provisions, such as those concerning “false and misleading information” and “acts endangering sovereignty,” raises concerns about potential misuse and misinterpretation, which necessitates clear guidelines and robust training.
  • Engagement with Civil Society: Active engagement with civil society, legal experts, and human rights organizations is crucial to ensure that the new laws are implemented in a manner that respects civil liberties and human rights.
  • Prison System Preparedness: The changes, including longer durations of police custody, will impact the prison system, necessitating infrastructural adjustments and training for prison officials.
  • Expanded Police Powers: Provisions like the extended police custody under Section 187 of the BNSS could lead to potential abuses of power, necessitating stringent oversight mechanisms. The police need clear protocols and continuous monitoring to prevent misuse.

Potential Challenges

  • Lack of Comprehensive Assessment:The absence of a reliable and independent assessment of institutional preparedness is a major concern.
  • Resource Constraints:Adequate funding and skilled personnel are critical for training and implementing the new laws.
  • Infrastructure Upgrades: Upgrading court facilities, prison infrastructure, and technological systems requires substantial investment and time.
  • Legal and Procedural Confusion:The transitional provisions in the new laws lack clarity, leading to potential confusion regarding the applicability of the old and new laws in ongoing cases. This can result in judicial confusion and contradictory judgments.


While the new criminal codes aim to modernize India’s criminal justice system, the readiness of institutions to implement these changes is questionable. The potential for confusion and misuse of expanded police powers, coupled with the lack of a comprehensive assessment of preparedness, suggests that the implementation should be postponed. A thorough and independent audit of the readiness of criminal justice institutions across the states is imperative to ensure a smooth and effective transition.

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