[Answered] Examine the concept of climate justice in the context of international cooperation, with a focus on India’s position and responsibilities as a major developing economy.

Climate justice is a concept that emphasizes the ethical and equitable dimensions of addressing climate change, particularly in the context of the disproportionate impact of climate change on vulnerable and marginalized communities. In the context of international cooperation, climate justice aims to ensure fairness in the global response to climate change and to address historical and current inequalities.

India’s position on climate justice

  • Historical Responsibilities: India contends that industrialized nations, who have traditionally been in the forefront of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, ought to assume the primary role in climate change mitigation. India places emphasis on the UNFCCC’s (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) “common but differentiated responsibilities” principle, which takes previous contributions to emissions into account.
  • Current Emission Levels: India, a major emitter due to its population and economic activities, seeks additional time and support for economic development without jeopardizing climate goals, citing its lower per capita emissions compared to developed countries.
  • Poverty Alleviation: India’s development goals include poverty alleviation and improving the standard of living for its population. The argument is that addressing climate change should not hinder economic growth and the improvement of living conditions for the millions living in poverty.
  • Adaptation Needs: India needs to adapt to the effects of climate change, which include increased sea levels, extreme weather events, and altered precipitation patterns. India emphasizes the need for wealthy nations to provide financial and technological help in order to enable adaptation to these impacts as part of the climate justice narrative.

Responsibilities and Measures

  • Technology Transfer and Finance: India places a strong emphasis on the necessity for rich nations to uphold their pledges to provide financial assistance and technology transfer to poor countries. The execution of mitigation and adaptation strategies in these nations depends heavily on this help.
  • Capacity Building: India emphasizes the significance of capacity building, particularly for poor nations, in order to effectively address climate change. Developing institutional capability and technical know-how to carry out climate-related projects and policies is part of this.
  • Mitigation Attempts: India has promised to make a major effort to lower its carbon intensity. Initiatives include boosting energy efficiency, expanding the amount of renewable energy in the energy mix, and undertaking afforestation initiatives.
  • Adaptation Strategies: India is currently engaged in the development of adaptation techniques aimed at enhancing its ability to withstand the effects of climate change. This involves taking steps like creating infrastructure that is robust to climate change, conserving water, and advancing sustainable agriculture.


The recently concluded COP 28 in UAE has paved the way from “transitioning away” from “all fossil fuels” as opposed to only coal which goes against India’s position of climate justice. India calls for differentiated responsibilities, fair support mechanisms, and global cooperation to ensure a just and sustainable response to climate challenges.

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