[Answered] Examine the current status of menstrual hygiene in Indian prisons. What are the primary challenges faced by female inmates, and how can these be addressed?

Introduction: Brief context of the situation in prisons.

Body: What are challenges and how can these be addressed?

Conclusion: Way forward

Menstrual hygiene in Indian prisons is severely lacking, with female inmates facing significant neglect. Despite broader societal advancements, the 23,772 women in Indian prisons, 77% of whom are of reproductive age, experience inconsistent and inadequate access to menstrual hygiene products and facilities.

Primary Challenges

  • Inconsistent Supply and Quality of Sanitary Napkins: The provision of sanitary napkins in prisons is largely dependent on donations from non-governmental organizations, resulting in an inconsistent supply. The quality of sanitary napkins is often poor, with reports of subpar absorption leading to discomfort, skin rashes, and infections.
  • Inadequate Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Facilities: Prisons often fail to meet the water and hygiene needs of female inmates, which are exacerbated during menstruation. Limited water supply forces women to store water in already cramped toilet spaces, further complicating their hygiene practices.
  • Overcrowding and Poor Socio-economic Conditions: Overcrowded prisons amplify the struggle to access basic necessities. The poor socio-economic conditions of inmates make it difficult for them to obtain essentials like sanitary napkins, detergent, and soap.
  • Health Issues: Inadequate menstrual hygiene management leads to a higher incidence of urinary infections and other health problems among female prisoners. The discouraging conditions in prison washrooms also contribute to these issues.

Addressing the Challenges

  • Ensure Adherence to the Model Prison Manual 2016: The Indian government should enforce uniform implementation of the Model Prison Manual 2016 across all states, which includes provisions for adequate water and washroom facilities.
  • Government Supply of Menstrual Hygiene Products: The government should directly supply prisons with a sufficient quantity of high-quality sanitary napkins through existing schemes like the Menstrual Hygiene Scheme.
  • Develop a Comprehensive Strategy: Collaboration between public health authorities and prison administrators is crucial to creating a comprehensive strategy that ensures access to adequate menstrual hygiene products and facilities, prioritizing the health and dignity of female inmates.
  • National Menstrual Hygiene Policy Implementation: The new National Menstrual Hygiene Policy, which recognizes prisoners as a vulnerable group, should include a concrete action plan for improving menstrual hygiene in prisons. This policy should engage the Ministry of Home Affairs as a critical stakeholder.


Addressing these challenges necessitates a multifaceted approach involving policy enforcement, direct government intervention, stakeholder collaboration, and evidence-based decision-making. Ensuring menstrual hygiene for female inmates is essential not only for their health but also for their dignity and human rights.

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