[Answered] Explain the constitutional and legislative powers of the Speaker of the Lok Sabha in India. How do these powers impact the functioning of parliamentary democracy in the country?

Introduction: Define the role of the Speaker

Body: What are the constitutional and legislative powers of the Speaker and their impact on parliamentary democracy?

Conclusion: Way forward

The Speaker of the Lok Sabha, the lower house of India’s Parliament, holds a pivotal role in ensuring the smooth functioning of the House. The Speaker’s constitutional and legislative powers significantly impact parliamentary democracy in India by maintaining order, ensuring impartiality, and safeguarding the principles of democracy.

Constitutional Powers

  • Presiding Over Sessions: As per Article 93 of the Indian Constitution, the Speaker presides over the sessions of the Lok Sabha, maintaining order and decorum. This includes managing debates, ensuring members adhere to rules, and protecting the rights of all members.
  • Casting Vote: The Speaker exercises a casting vote in case of a tie (Article 100), which can be crucial in closely contested legislative decisions.
  • Certification of Money Bills: The Speaker has the authority to certify bills as Money Bills (Article 110). This decision is final and not subject to judicial review, impacting the legislative process significantly as Money Bills have a special procedure and do not require approval from the Rajya Sabha (the upper house).

Legislative Powers

  • Control Over Parliamentary Committees: The Speaker appoints the chairpersons of various parliamentary committees and plays a key role in referring bills to these committees for detailed examination. This can influence the scrutiny and outcome of legislative proposals.
  • Regulation of Business: The Speaker decides the agenda for each sitting of the Lok Sabha, including the allotment of time for debates and discussions. This power helps in prioritizing issues of national importance and ensuring efficient legislative functioning.
  • Disqualification of Members: Under the Tenth Schedule of the Constitution, the Speaker has the authority to decide on the disqualification of members under the anti-defection law. This power is crucial in maintaining the integrity of the House and party discipline.

Impact on Parliamentary Democracy

  • Maintaining Order and Decorum: The Speaker’s role in maintaining order is fundamental to the functioning of parliamentary democracy. By ensuring that debates are conducted in a disciplined manner, the Speaker upholds the dignity and decorum of the House, facilitating productive legislative discussions.
  • Impartiality and Fairness: The Speaker is expected to act impartially and ensure that all members, irrespective of their party affiliation, have an opportunity to participate in the legislative process. This impartiality is vital for maintaining trust in the parliamentary system.
  • Upholding Democratic Norms: The Speaker’s powers to enforce parliamentary privileges and take disciplinary actions help in upholding democratic norms and protecting the sanctity of the parliamentary institution. This is essential for the credibility and legitimacy of the legislative process.


The Speaker of the Lok Sabha holds a central role in India’s parliamentary democracy, equipped with substantial constitutional and legislative powers. The effectiveness and impartiality of the Speaker are crucial for maintaining the integrity, efficiency, and credibility of the parliamentary system in India.

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