[Answered] What are the key components that should be included in India’s national security doctrine to address current and emerging threats?

Introduction: Contextual Introduction

Body: What are key components of India that can be included in NSS?

Conclusion: Way forward

Recently, the Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) made an interesting comment about the formulation of a National Security Strategy (NSS).

Key Components of India’s National Security Doctrine

  • Modernization of Armed Forces: Continuous investment in advanced technology, modern equipment, and training for the Army, Navy, and Air Force to enhance combat readiness and capability. The NSS is also a prerequisite for the operationalization of theatre commands and transformation.
  • Strategic Clarity and Guidance: A written NSS provides clear strategic direction and priorities for all security agencies, ensuring cohesive and coordinated efforts.
  • Intelligence Coordination: Enhanced coordination and real-time intelligence sharing between various intelligence agencies to ensure timely and effective responses to threats.
  • Surveillance Infrastructure: Expanding surveillance networks using drones, satellites, and advanced surveillance technologies to monitor borders and sensitive areas.
  • Infrastructure Development: Building and maintaining infrastructure along borders to facilitate quick mobilization and effective patrolling.
  • Strategic Alliances: Building and maintaining strategic alliances with key global and regional powers to enhance security cooperation.
  • Indigenous Defense Production: Promoting self-reliance by encouraging indigenous production of defense equipment and reducing dependence on imports.
  • Disaster Preparedness: Developing comprehensive disaster management plans to deal with natural and man-made disasters.
  • Policy Reforms: Updating and enacting laws to address new security challenges such as cybercrime, terrorism, and espionage.
  • Awareness Campaigns: Conducting public awareness campaigns to educate citizens about security threats and the importance of vigilance.
  • Decision Making: Clear operational procedures and simple decision-making are the most important factors. A decentralized Directive Style of Command (DSOC) is eventually required to replace the system, which suffers from over-centralization.
  • Accountability: The current reviews by the Parliamentary Standing Committee and Auditor General are sub-optimal. They need support from net-assessment and statistical tools for periodic audits and dynamic goal setting. Using the NSS for peer review by think tanks can reduce ambiguity and enhance accountability.


Incorporating these components into India’s national security doctrine will provide strategic clarity, operational efficiency, and a comprehensive approach to address both current and emerging threats. This doctrine should foster a “whole of nation” approach, build synergy across various sectors, and harness comprehensive national power (CNP). By doing so, India can ensure a secure and stable environment conducive to its growth and development in the increasingly complex global landscape

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