Answers: Mains Marathon – UPSC Mains Current Affairs Questions – January 8, 2019

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Q.1) “India’s unprecedented economic growth during the last two decades has been spearheaded by lopsided urbanization and spatial economic development” Discuss the causes and impact of skewed urbanization and development


Causes of urbanisation in India:

  1. Industrialization: Industrialization is a major cause of urbanization. It has expanded the employment opportunities. Rural people have migrated to cities on account of better employment opportunities.
  2. Social factors: Many social factors such as attraction of cities, better standard of living, better educational facilities, need for status also induce people to migrate to cities.
  3. Employment opportunities: In rural sector people have to depend mainly on agriculture for their livelihood. But Indian agriculture is depending on monsoon. In drought situations or natural calamities, rural people have to migrate to cities.
  4. Modernization: Urban areas are characterized by sophisticated technology better infrastructure, communication, medical facilities, etc. People feel that they can lead a comfortable life in cities and migrate to cities.


  1. Problem of overpopulation: Concentration of population is a major problem of cities. It has resulted in accommodation problem, growth of slums etc.
  2. Disintegration of Joint family: Joint family can’t be maintained in cities on account of high cost of living: People prefer to live in the nuclear type of families.
  3. Cost of living: High cost of living is a major problem of cities. In Metro cities like Mumbai, Bangalore etc. it is very difficult for lower income groups to maintain a decent standard of living.
  4. Increase in Crime rates: Urban centres are known for high rate of crimes. Theft, Dacoity, Murder, Cheating, Pick pocketing, rape etc. are common in urban centres.
  5. Impersonal relations: Urban centres are characterised by highly secondary relations. The concept of neighbourhood, community life are almost absent in cities.
  6. Problem of Pollution: In industrialized cities pollution is a major problems. It may be caused by industries or by excessive movement of vehicles.


Q.2)  What do you mean by a fugitive economic offender? Critically discuss the Fugitive Economic Offender Act, 2018


The Bill allows for a person to be declared as a fugitive economic offender if: (i) an arrest warrant has been issued against him for any specified offences where the value involved is over Rs 100 crore, and (ii) he has left the country and refuses to return to face prosecution.


  1. To declare a person an FEO, an application will be filed in a Special Court under PMLA, 2002.  
  2. The Bill allows authorities to provisionally attach properties of an accused, while the application is pending before the Special Court.
  3. Upon declaration as an FEO, properties of a person may be confiscated and vested in the central government, free of encumbrances.
  4. The FEO or any company associated with him may be barred from filing or defending civil claims.  


  1. 100 crore limit is necessary not to overburden the existing judicial system.


  1. It is not applicable to past fugitives/ crimes done in the past.
  2. The limit of 100 crores is questioned to be too low for such economic crimes.
  3. The presumption of guilt without trial goes against principles of natural justice.
  4. There is a challenge in enforcing liquidation/ attachment of properties in foreign jurisdictions without legal understanding between the nations.
  5. The law could impact investments into the country as people will be wary of the corporate governance procedures adopted in the respective company.

Way ahead:

  1. Bringing in subject matter experts to head such judicial positions. France allowed to appoint an economist as a judge to deal with rising no of such cases.
  2. Strengthen the investigation machinery which supports the implementation of the law and prosecution of the accused.


Q.3) Smart Village are essential base to sustain Smart city. In this context analyze effectiveness of RURBAN Mission in development of Smart Village?


Importance of smart villages:

  1. Prevents migration to urban areas
  2. Ensures quality of living in rural areas
  3. Improves overall services life health, education and finance availability
  4. Increased job opportunities due to alternative livelihood options
  5. Reduces damage on the environment by effective use of technologies in agriculture and other traditional practises

The Mission aims at development of rural growth clusters which have latent potential for growth, in all States and Union Territories (UTs), which would trigger overall development in the region. These clusters would be developed by provisioning of economic activities, developing skills & local entrepreneurship and providing infrastructure amenities. The Rurban Mission will thus develop a cluster of Smart Villages.


Q.4) Rising mob protest and violence demands effective Emotional Intelligence from civil servants on ground. Provide measures for strengthening emotional intelligence in civil servants for their effective applications in such cases?


Emotional intelligence of civil servants is essential to limit the spread of the crisis and also to calm down the tensions during riot situations.

Measures to strengthen EI:

  1. Inculcating the spirit of constitutional values in the civil servants.
  2. Creating frameworks for holding accountable on outcomes.
  3. Training and workshops focusing on the team and emotional aspects of work.
  4. Creating a broader code of ethics to enable their discretion in moments of doubt.
  5. Creating conducive work environment to balance professional and personal life.
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