Polity Previous Year Questions (PYQs) | UPSC Mains Examination


Polity Previous Year Questions (PYQs) | UPSC Mains Examination

On this page you will find all the updates related to the previous year questions of subject Polity for UPSC IAS Mains examination.

Indian Polity is an important topic in the UPSC Mains GS 2 paper of the Civil Services Examination. The Polity Mains Questions include judicial systems, legislative, executive, and various constitutional and non-constitutional authorities, etc. Numerous conceptual and analytical questions have been asked over the years.

Topic: Indian Constitution—historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure:

Q: Who are entitled to receive free legal aid? Assess the role of National Legal Services Authority (NALSA) in rendering free legal aid in India. [10 Marks] [2023]

Q: “The Constitution of India is a living instrument with capabilities of enormous dynamism. It is a constitution made for a progressive society.” Illustrate with special reference to the expanding horizons of the right to life and personal liberty. [15 Marks] [2023]

Q: Explain the constitutional perspectives of Gender Justice with the help of relevant Constitutional Provisions and case laws. [15 Marks] [2023]

Q: Account for the legal and political factors responsible for the reduced frequency of using Article 356 by the Union Governments since mid-1990s. [15 Marks] [2023]

Q: Explain the significance of the 101st Constitutional Amendment Act. To what extent does it reflect the accommodative spirit of federalism. [15 Marks] [2023]

Q: Explain the structure of the Parliamentary Committee system. How far have the financial committees helped in the institutionalization of Indian Parliament? [15 Marks] [2023]

Q.1) “Right of movement and residence throughout the territory of India are freely available to the Indian citizens, but these rights are not absolute.” Comment. [150 Words] [10 Marks] [2022]

Q.2) ‘Constitutional Morality’ is rooted in the constitution itself and is founded on its essential facets. Explain the doctrine of Constitutional Morality’ with the help of relevant judicial decisions. [150 Words] [10 Marks] [2021]

Q.3) Indian Constitution exhibits centralising tendencies to maintain unity and integrity of the nation. Elucidate in the perspective of the Epidemic Diseases Act, 1897; The Disaster Management Act, 2005 and recently passed Farm Acts. [250 Words] [15 Marks] [2020]

Q.4) “Parliament’s power to amend the Constitution is a limited power and it cannot be enlarged into absolute power.” In the light of this statement explain whether Parliament under Article 368 of the Constitution can destroy the Basic Structure of the Constitution by expanding its amending power? [250 Words] [15 Marks] [2019]

Q.5) Under what circumstances can the Financial Emergency be proclaimed by the President of India? What consequences follow when such a declaration remains in force? [250 Words] [15 Marks] [2018]

Q.6) Explain the salient features of the constitution (One Hundred and First Amendment) Act, 2016. Do you think it is efficacious enough ‘to remove cascading effect of taxes and provide for common national market for goods and services’? [250 Words] [15 Marks] [2017]

Q.7) Examine the scope of Fundamental Rights in the light of the latest judgement of the Supreme Court on Right to Privacy. [250 Words] [15 Marks] [2017]

Q.8) To what extent is Article 370 of the Indian Constitution, bearing marginal note “temporary provision with respect to the State of Jammu and Kashmir”, temporary? Discuss the future prospects of this provision in the context of Indian polity. [200 Words] [12.5 Marks] [2016]

Q.9) Discuss each adjective attached to the word ‘Republic’ in the ‘Preamble’. Are they defendable in the present circumstances? [200 Words] [12.5 Marks] [2016]

Q.10) What was held in the Coelho case? In this context, can you say that judicial review is of key importance amongst the basic features of the Constitution? [200 Words] [12.5 Marks] [2016]

Q.11) In the integrity index of Transparency International, India stands very low. Discuss briefly the legal, political, social and cultural factors that have caused the decline of public morality in India.[200 Words] [12.5 Marks] [2016]

Q.12) Discuss the possible factors that inhibit India from enacting for its citizen a uniform civil code as provided for in the Directive Principles of State Policy. [200 Words] [12.5 Marks] [2015]

Q.13) Does the right to clean environment entail legal regulation on burning crackers during Diwali? Discus in the light of Article 21 of Indian Constitution and judgements of the apex in this regard. [200 Words] [12.5 Marks] [2015]

Q.14) What do understand by the concept “freedom of speech and expression”? Does it cover hate speech also? Why do the films in India stand on a slightly different plane from other forms of expression? Discuss. [200 Words] [12.5 Marks] [2014]

Q.15) Discuss-Section 66A of IT Act, with reference to its alleged violation of Article 19 of the Constitution. [200 Words] [10 Marks] [2013]

Q.16) Recent directives from Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas are perceived by the ‘Nagas’ as a threat to override the exceptional status enjoyed by the State. Discuss in light of Article 371A of the Indian Constitution. [200 Words] [10 Marks] [2013]

Topic: Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein: 

Q: “The states in India seem reluctant to empower urban local bodies both functionally as well as financially.” [10 Marks] [2023]

Q.1) To what extent, in your opinion, as the decentralization of power in India changed the governance landscape at the grassroots? [150 Words] [10 Marks] [2022]

Q.2) While the national political parties in India favour centralisation, the regional parties are in favour of State autonomy.” Comment. [250 Words] [15 Marks] [2022]

Q.3) The jurisdiction of the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) regarding lodging FIR and conducting probe within a particular State is being questioned by various States. However, the power of the States to withhold consent to the CBI is not absolute. Explain with special reference to the federal character of India. [250 Words] [15 Marks] [2021]

Q.4) How far do you think cooperation, competition and confrontation have shaped the nature of federation in India? Cite some recent examples, to validate your answer. [150 Words] [10 Marks] [2020]

Q.5) The strength and sustenance of local institutions in India has shifted from their formative phase of ‘Functions, Functionaries and Funds’ to the contemporary stage of Functionality’. Highlight the critical challenges faced by local institutions in terms of their functionality in recent times. [250 Words] [15 Marks] [2020]

Q.6) From the resolution of contentious issues regarding distribution of legislative powers by the courts, ‘Principle of Federal Supremacy’ and ‘Harmonious Construction’ have emerged. Explain. [150 Words] [10 Marks] [2019]

Q.7) Assess the importance of the Panchayat system in India as a part of local government. Apart from government grants, what sources the Panchayats can look out for financing developmental projects? [250 Words] [15 Marks] [2018]

Q.8) “The local self-government system in India has not proved to be effective instrument of governance”. Critically examine the statement and give your views to improve the situation. [150 Words] [10 Marks] [2017]

Q.9) Discuss the essentials of the 69th Constitutional Amendment Act and anomalies, if any, that have led to recent reported conflicts between the elected representatives and the institution of the Lieutenant Governor in the administration of Delhi. Do you think that this will give rise to a new trend in the functioning of the Indian federal politics? [200 Words] [12.5 Marks] [2016]

Q.10) Did the Government of India Act, 1935 lay down a federal constitution? Discuss. [200 Words] [12.5 Marks] [2016]

Q.11)The concept of cooperative federalism has been increasingly emphasized in recent years. Highlight the drawbacks in the existing structure and extent to which cooperative federalism would answer the shortcomings. [200 Words] [12.5 Marks] [2015]

Q.12) In the absence of well–educated and organised local level government system, Panchayats and Samitis have remained mainly political institutions and not effective instrument of governance. Critically Discuss.[200 Words] [12.5 Marks] [2015]

Q.13) Though the federal principle is dominant in our Constitution and that principle is one of its basic features, but it is equally true that federalism under the Indian Constitution leans in favour of a strong Centre, a feature that militates against the concept of strong federalism. [200 Words] [12.5 Marks] [2014]

Q.14) Starting from inventing the ‘basic structure’ doctrine, the judiciary has played a highly pro active role in ensuring that India develops into a thriving democracy. In light of the statement, evaluate the role played by judicial activism in achieving the ideals of democracy.[200 Words] [12.5 Marks] [2014]

Q.15) Many States Governments further bifurcate geographical administrative areas like Districts and Talukas for better governance. In light of the above, can it also be justified that more number of smaller States would bring in effective governance at State level? Discuss. [200 Words] [10 Marks] [2013]

Q.16) Constitutional mechanisms to resolve the inter-state water disputes have failed to address and solve the problems. Is the failure due to structural or process inadequacy or both? Discuss. [200 Words] [10 Marks] [2013]

Topic: Separation of powers between various organs dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions:

Q: “Constitutionally guaranteed judicial independence is a prerequisite of democracy”. Comment. [10 Marks] [2023]

Q.1) Judicial Legislation is antithetical to the doctrine of separation of powers as envisaged in the Indian Constitution. In this context justify the filing of large number of public interest petitions praying for issuing guidelines to executive authorities. [250 Words] [15 Marks] [2020]

Q.2) Do you think that constitution of India does not accept principle of strict separation of powers rather it is based on the principle of ‘checks and balance’? Explain. [150 Words] [10 Marks] [2019]

Q.3) Resorting to ordinances has always raised concern on violation of the spirit of separation of power doctrine. While noting the rationales justifying the power to promulgate, analyse whether the decision of the Supreme Court on the issue have further facilitated to resorting to this power. Should the power to promulgate the ordinances be repealed? [200 Words] [12.5 Marks] [2015]

Q.4) ‘The Supreme Court of India keeps a check on arbitrary power of the Parliament in amending the Constitution.’ Discuss critically. [200 Words] [10 Marks] [2013]

Topic: Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other countries:

Q.1) Compare and contrast the British and Indian approaches to Parliamentary sovereignty. [10 Marks] [2023]

Q.2) Critically examine the procedures through which the Presidents of India and France are elected. [250 Words] [15 Marks] [2022]

Q.3) Analyze the distinguishing features of the notion of Right to Equality in the Constitutions of the USA and India. [250 Words] [15 Marks] [2021]

Q.4) The judicial systems in India and UK seem to be converging as well as diverging in recent times. Highlight the key points of convergence and divergence between the two nations in terms of their judicial practices. [150 Words] [10 Marks] [2020]

Q.5) What can France learn from the Indian Constitution’s approach to secularism? [150 Words] [10 Marks] [2019]

Q.6) Indian and USA are two large democracies. Examine the basic tenets on which the two political systems are based. [250 Words] [15 Marks] [2018]

Topic: Parliament and State legislatures—structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these:

Q.1) Discuss the role of Presiding Officers of state legislatures in maintaining order and impartiality in conducting legislative work and in facilitating best democratic practices. [10 Marks] [2023]

Q.2) Discuss the role of the Vice–Presidents of India as the chairman of the Rajya Sabha. [150 Words][10 Marks] [2022]

Q.3) Discuss the essential conditions for exercise of the legislative powers by the Governor. Discuss the legality of re-promulgation of ordinances by the Governor without placing them before the Legislature. [250 Words] [15 Marks] [2022]

Q.4) Do Department-related Parliamentary Standing Committees keep the administrations on its toes and inspire reverence for parliamentary control? Evaluate the working of such committees with suitable examples. [250 Words] [15 Marks] [2021]

Q.5) Explain the constitutional provisions under which the Legislative Councils are established. Review the working and current status of Legislative Councils with suitable illustrations. [250 Words] [15 Marks] [2021]

Q.6) To what extent, in your view, the Parliament is able to ensure accountability of the executive in India?[150 Words] [10 Marks] [2021]

Q.7) ‘Once a Speaker, Always a Speaker’! Do you think this practice should be adopted to impart objectivity to the office of the Speaker of Lok Sabha? What could be its implications for the robust functioning of parliamentary business in India? [150 Words] [10 Marks] [2020]

Q.8) Rajya Sabha has been transformed from a ‘useless stepney tyre to supporting organ in past few decades. Highlight the factors as well as the areas which this transformation could be visible. [250 Words] [15 Marks] [2020]

Q.9) Individual Parliamentarian’s role as the national lawmaker is on a decline, which in turn, has adversely impacted the quality of debates and their outcome. Discuss. [250 Words][15 Marks][2019]

Q.11) Why do you think the committees are considered to be useful for parliamentary work? Discuss, in this context, the role of the Estimates Committee. [150 Words] [10 Marks] [2018]

Q.12) Discuss the role of Public Accounts Committee in establishing accountability of the government to the people. [150 Words] [10 Marks] [2017]

Q.13) The Indian Constitution has provisions for holding joint session of the two houses of the Parliament. Enumerate the occasions when this would normally happen and also the occasions when it cannot, with reasons thereof. [250 Words] [15 Marks] [2017]

Q.14) If amendment bill to the Whistle-blowers Protection Act 2011 tabled in the Parliament is passed,there may be no on left to protect. Critically Evaluate. [200 Words] [12.5 Marks] [2015]

Q.15) The ‘Powers, Privileges and Immunities of Parliament and its Members’ as envisaged in Article 105 of the Constitution leave room for a large number of un-codified and un-enumerated privileges to continue. Assess the reasons for the absence of legal codification of the ‘parliamentary privileges’. How can this problem be addressed? [200 Words] [12.5 Marks] [2014]

Q.16) The role of individual MPs (Members of Parliament) has diminished over the years and as a result healthy constructive debates on policy issues are not usually witnessed. How far can this be attributed to the anti-defection law which was legislated but with a different intention? [200 Words] [10 Marks] [2013]

Topic: Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary—Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity: 

Q.1) “The most significant achievement of modern law in India is the constitutionalization of environmental problems by the Supreme Court.” Discuss this statement with the help of relevant case laws. [150 Words] [10 Marks] [2022]

Q.2) “Pressure Groups play a vital role in influencing public policy making in India.” Explain how the business associations contribute to public policies. [150 Words] [10 Marks] [2021]

Q.3) Discuss the desirability of greater representation to women in the higher judiciary to ensure diversity, equity and inclusiveness. [150 Words] [10 Marks] [2021]

Q.4) What are the methods used by the Farmers organizations to influence the policy-makers in India and how effective are these methods? [150 Words] [10 Marks] [2019]

Q.5) “The Attorney-General is the chief legal adviser and lawyer of the Government of India.” Discuss.[250 Words] [15 Marks] [2019]

Q.6) Whether the Supreme Court Judgement (July 2018) can settle the political tussle between the Lt. Governor and elected government of Delhi? Examine. [250 Words] [15 Marks] [2018]

Q.7) How far do you agree with the view that tribunals curtail the jurisdiction of ordinary courts? In view of the above, discuss the constitutional validity and competency of the tribunals in India. [250 Words] [15 Marks] [2018]

Q.8) Critically examine the Supreme Court’s judgement on ‘National Judicial Appointments Commission Act, 2014’ with reference to appointment of judges of higher judiciary in India. [150 Words] [10 Marks] [2017]

Q.9) How do pressure groups influence Indian political process? Do you agree with this view that informal pressure groups have emerged as powerful than formal pressure groups in recent years? [150 Words] [10 Marks] [2017]

Q.`10) ‘Simultaneous election to the Lok Sabha and the State Assemblies will limit the amount of time and money spent in electioneering but it will reduce the government’s accountability to the people’ Discuss. [150 Words] [10 Marks] [2017]

Q.11) “The Indian party system is passing through a phase of transition which looks to be full of contradictions and paradoxes.” Discuss. [200 Words] [12.5 Marks] [2016]

Q.12) Khap panchayat shave been in the news for functioning as extra–constitutional authorities, often delivering pronouncements amounting to human right violations. Discuss critically the actions taken by the legislative, executive and judiciary to set the things right in this regard. [200 Words] [12.5 Marks] [2015]

Q.13) What are the major changes brought in the Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1966 through the recent ordinance promulgated by the President? How far will it improve India’s dispute resolution mechanism? Discuss. [200 Words] [12.5 Marks] [2015]

Q.14) Instances of President’s delay in commuting death sentences has come under public debate as denial of justice. Should there be a time specified for the President to accept/reject such petitions? Analyse. [200 Words] [12.5 Marks] [2014]

Q.15) The size of the cabinet should be as big as governmental work justifies and as big as the Prime Minister can manage as a team. How far is the efficacy of a government then inversely related to the size of the cabinet? Discuss. [200 Words] [12.5 Marks] [2014]

Q.16) Pressure group politics is sometimes seen as the informal face of politics. With regards to the above, assess the structure and functioning of pressure groups in India. [200 Words] [10 Marks][2013

Topic: Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act:

Q.1) Discuss the procedures to decide the disputes arising out of the election of a Member of the Parliament or State Legislature under The Representation of the People Act, 1951. What are the grounds on which the election of any returned candidate may be declared void? What remedy is available to the aggrieved party against the decision? Refer to the case laws. [250 Words] [15 Marks] [2022]

Q.2) “There is a need for simplification of procedure for disqualification of persons found guilty of corrupt practices under the Representation of Peoples Act”. Comment. [150 Words] [10 Marks][2020]

Q.3) On what grounds a people’s representative can be disqualified under the Representation of People Act, 1951? Also mention the remedies available to such person against his disqualification. [250 Words] [15 Marks] [2019]

Q.4) The light of recent controversy regarding the use of Electronic Voting Machines (EVM), what are the challenges before the Election Commission of India to ensure the trustworthiness of elections in India?[150 Words] [10 Marks] [2018]

Q.5) To enhance the quality of democracy in India the Election Commission of India has proposed electoral reforms in 2016. What are the suggested reforms and how far are they significant to make democracy successful? [250 Words] [15 Marks] [2017]

Topic: Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies:

Q.1) Discuss the role of the Election Commission of India in the light of the evolution of the ModelCode of Conduct. [250 Words] [15 Marks] [2022]

Q.2) How have the recommendations of the 14th Finance Commission of India enabled the States to improve their fiscal position? [150 Words] [10 Marks] [2021]

Q.3) Which steps are required for constitutionalization of a Commission? Do you think imparting constitutionality to the National Commission for Women would ensure greater gender justice and empowerment in India? Give reasons. [250 Words] [15 Marks] [2020]

Q.4) “The Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) has a very vital role to play.” Explain how this is reflected in the method and terms of his appointment as well as the range of powers he can exercise. [150 Words] [10 Marks] [2018]

Q.5) Whether National Commission for Scheduled Castes (NCSC) can enforce the implementation of constitutional reservation for the Scheduled Castes in the religious minority institutions? Examine. [150 Words] [10 Marks] [2018]

Q.6) How is the Finance Commission of India constituted? What do you know about the terms of reference of the recently constituted Finance Commission? Discuss. [250 Words] [15 Marks] [2018]

Q.7) Exercise of CAG’s powers in relation to the accounts of the Union and the States is derived from Article 149 of the Indian Constitution. Discuss whether audit of the Government’s policy implementation could amount to overstepping its own (CAG) jurisdiction. [200 Words] [12.5 Marks] [2016]

Q.8) Discuss the recommendations of the 13th Finance Commission which have been a departure fromthe previous commissions for strengthening the local government finances.[200 Words] [10 Marks] [2013]

Q.9) ‘A national Lokpal, however strong it may be, cannot resolve the problems of immorality in public affairs.’ Discuss. [200 Words] [10 Marks] [2013]

Topic: Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies:

Q: Discuss the role of the Competition Commission of India in containing the abuse of dominant position by the Multi-National Corporations in India. Refer to the recent decisions. [10 Marks] [2023]

Q.1) Discuss the role of the National Commission for Backward Classes in the wake of its transformation from a statutory body to a constitutional body. [150 Words] [10 Marks] [2022]

Q.2) Though the Human Rights Commissions have contributed immensely to the protection of human rights in India, ye they have failed to assert themselves against the mighty and powerful. Analyzing their structural and practical limitations, suggest remedial measures. [150 Words] [10 Marks][2021]

Q.3) “Recent amendments to the Right to Information Act will have profound impact on the autonomy and independence of the Information Commission”. Discuss. [150 Words] [10 Marks] [2020]

Q.4) “The Central Administration Tribunal which was established for redressal of grievances and complaints by or against central government employees, nowadays is exercising its powers as an independent judicial authority.” Explain. [150 Words] [10 Marks] [2019]

Q.5) Is the National Commission for Women able to strategize and tackle the problems that women facet both public and private spheres? Give reasons in support of your answer. [250 Words] [15 Marks] [2017]

Q.6) What is quasi-judicial body? Explain with the help of concrete examples. [200 Words] [12.5 Marks][2016]

Q.7) For achieving the desired objectives, it is necessary to ensure that the regulatory institution remain independent and autonomous. Discuss in the light of experiences in recent past. [200 Words] [12.5 Marks] [2015]

Q.8) The setting up of a Rail Tariff Authority to regulate fares will subject the cash strapped Indian Railways to demand subsidy for obligation to operate non-profitable routes and services. Taking into account the experience in the power sector, discuss if the proposed reform is expected to benefit the consumers, the Indian Railways or the private container operators.[200 Words] [12.5 Marks] [2014]

Q.9) National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) in India can be most effective when its tasks are adequately supported by other mechanisms that ensure the accountability of a government. In light of above observation assess the role of NHRC as an effective complement to the judiciary and other institutions in promoting and protecting human rights standards. [200 Words] [12.5 Marks][2014]

Q.10) The product diversification of financial institutions and insurance companies, resulting in overlapping of products and services strengthens the case for the merger of the two regulatory agencies, namely SEBI and IRDA. Justify. [200 Words] [10 Marks] [2013]

Topic: India and its neighbourhood-relations: 

Q.1) India is an age-old friend of Sri Lanka.’ Discuss India’s role in the recent crisis in Sri Lanka in the light of the preceding statement. [150 Words] [10 Marks] [2022]

Q.2) China is using its economic relations and positive trade surplus as tools to develop potential military power status in Asia’, In the light of this statement, discuss its impact on India as her neighbour. [150 Words] [10 Marks] [2017]

Q.3) “Increasing cross-border terrorist attacks in India and growing interference in the internal affairs of member-states by Pakistan are not conducive for the future of SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation).” Explain with suitable examples. [200 Words] [12.5 Marks] [2016]

Q.4) Project ‘Mausam’ is considered a unique foreign policy initiative of Indian government to improve relationship with its neighbours. Does the project have a strategic dimension? Discuss. [200 Words] [12.5 Marks] [2015]

Q.5) Terrorist activities and mutual distrust have clouded India–Pakistan relations. To what extent the use of soft power like sports and cultural exchange could help generate goodwill between the two countries. Discuss with suitable examples. [200 Words] [12.5 Marks] [2015]

Q.6) With respect to the South China sea, maritime territorial disputes and rising tension affirm the need for safeguarding maritime security to ensure freedom of navigation and over flight throughout the region. In this context, discuss the bilateral issues between India and China. [200 Words] [12.5 Marks] [2014]

Q.7) The protests in Shahbag Square in Dhaka in Bangladesh reveal a fundamental split in society between the nationalists and Islamic forces. What is its significance for India? [200 Words] [10 Marks] [2013]

Q.8) In respect of India-Sri Lanka relations, discuss how domestic factors influence foreign policy. [200 Words] [10 Marks] [2013]

Topic: Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests: 

Q.1) How will 12U2 (India, Israel, UAE, and USA) grouping transform India’s position in global politics? [250 Words] [15 Marks] [2022]

Q.2) “If the last few decades were of Asia’s growth story, the next few are expected to be Africa’s.” In the light of this statement, examine India’s influence in Africa in recent years.[150 Words] [10 Marks][2021]

Q.3) Quadrilateral Security Dialogue(Quad)’ is transforming itself into a trade bloc from a military alliance, in present times–Discuss.[250 Words] [15 Marks] [2020]

Q.4) What is the significance of Indo-US defence deals over Indo-Russian defence deals? Discuss with reference to stability in the Indo-Pacific region. [250 Words] [15 Marks] [2020]

Q.5) ‘The time has come for India and Japan to build a strong contemporary relationship, one involving global and strategic partnership that will have a great significance for Asia and the world as a whole.’ Comment. [150 Words] [10 Marks] [2019]

Q.6) “The long-sustained image of India as a leader of the oppressed and marginalised Nations has disappeared on account of its new found role in the emerging global order” Elaborate. [250 Words][15 Marks] [2019]

Q.7) “What introduces friction into the ties between India and the United States is that Washington is still unable to find for India a position in its global strategy, which would satisfy India’s National self-esteem and ambitions” Explain with suitable examples. [250 Words] [15 Marks] [2019]

Q.8) “India’s relations with Israel have, of late, acquired a depth and diversity, which cannot be rolled back.” Discuss.[150 Words] [10 Marks] [2018]

Q.9) A number of outside powers have entrenched themselves in Central Asia, which is a zone of interest to India. Discuss the implications, in this context, of India’s joining the Ashgabat Agreement, 2018. [150 Words] [10 Marks] [2018]

Q.10) The question of India’s Energy Security constitutes the most important part of India’s economic progress. Analyze India’s energy policy cooperation with West Asian Countries. [200 Words] [12.5 Marks] [2016]

Q.11) Evaluate the economic and strategic dimensions of India’s Look East Policy in the context of the post-Cold War international scenario. [200 Words] [12.5 Marks] [2016]

Q.12) Increasing interest of India in Africa has its pro and cons. Critically Examine.[200 Words] [12.5Marks] [2014]

Q.13) The aim of Information Technology Agreements (ITAs) is to lower all taxes and tariffs on Information technology products by signatories to zero. What impact would such agreements have on India’s interests? [200 Words] [12.5 Marks] [2014]

Q.14) Some of the International funding agencies have special terms for economic participation stipulating a substantial component of the aid used for sourcing equipment from the leading countries. Discuss on merits of such terms and it, there exists a strong case not to accept such conditions in the Indian context. [200 Words] [12.5 Marks] [2014]

Q.15) India has recently signed to become founding member of New Development Bank (NDB) and also the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB). How will the role of the two Banks be different?Discuss the strategic significance of these two Banks for India.[200 Words] [12.5 Marks] [2014]

Q.16) The proposed withdrawal of International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) from Afghanistan in 2014 is fraught with major security implications for the countries of the region. Examine in light of the fact that India is faced with a plethora of challenges and needs to safeguard its own strategic interests.[200 Words] [10 Marks] [2013]

Q.17) What do you understand by ‘The String of Pearls’? How does it impact India? Briefly outline the steps taken by India to counter this.[200 Words] [10 Marks] [2013]

Q.18) Economic ties between India and Japan while growing in the recent years are still far below their potential. Elucidate the policy constraints which are inhibiting this growth. [200 Words] [10 Marks] [2013]

Q.19) What is meant by Gujral doctrine? Does it have any relevance today.Discuss. [200 Words] [10 Marks] [2013]

Topic: Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora:

Q.1) Clean energy is the order of the day.’ Describe briefly India’s changing policy towards climate change in various international for in the context of geopolitics. [250 Words] [15 Marks] [2022]

Q.2) The newly tri-nation partnership AUKUS is aimed at countering China’s ambitions in the Indo-Pacific region. Is it going to supersede the existing partnerships in the region? Discuss the strength and impact of AUKUS in the present scenario. [250 Words] [15 Marks] [2021]

Q.3) “The USA is facing an existential threat in the form of a China, that is much more challenging than the erstwhile Soviet Union.” Explain. [150 Words] [10 Marks] [2021]

Q.4) ‘Indian diaspora has a decisive role to play in the politics and economy of America and European Countries’. Comment with examples. [150 Words] [10 Marks] [2020]

Q.5) In what ways would the ongoing US-Iran Nuclear Pact Controversy affect the national interest of India? How should India respond to its situation? [250 Words] [15 Marks] [2018]

Q.6) Indian Diaspora has an important role to play in South-East Asian countries’ economy and society. Appraise the role of Indian Diaspora in South-East Asia in this context.[250 Words] [15 Marks][2017]

Q.7) Discuss the political developments in Maldives in the last two years. Should they be of any cause of concern to India? [200 Words] [10 Marks] [2013]

Topic: Important International institutions, agencies and fora-their structure, mandate:

Q.1) Do you think that BIMSTEC is a parallel organization like the SAARC? What are the similarities and dissimilarities between the two? How are Indian foreign policy objectives realized by forming this new organisation? [150 Words] [10 Marks] [2022]

Q.2) Critically examine the aims and objectives of SCO. What importance does it hold for India? [250 Words] [15 Marks] [2021]

Q.3) Critically examine the role of WHO in providing global health security during the Covid-19 pandemic. [150 Words] [10 Marks] [2020]

Q.4) ‘Too little cash, too much politics, leaves UNESCO fighting for life.’ Discuss the statement in the light of US’ withdrawal and its accusation of the cultural body as being ‘anti-Israel bias’. [150 Words] [10 Marks] [2019]

Q.5) What are the key areas of reform if the WTO has to survive in the present context of ‘Trade War’, especially keeping in mind the interest of India? [250 Words] [15 Marks] [2018]

Q.6) What are the main functions of the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)? Explain different functional commissions attached to it. [150 Words] [10 Marks] [2017]

Q.7) “The broader aims and objectives of WTO are to manage and promote international trade in the era of globalization. But the Doha round of negotiations seem doomed due to differences between the developed and the developing countries.” Discuss in the Indian perspective.[200 Words] [12.5 Marks] [2016]

Q.8) What are the aims and objectives of the McBride Commission of the UNESCO? What is India’s position on these? [200 Words] [12.5 Marks] [2016]

Q.9) Discuss the impediments India is facing in its pursuit of a permanent seat in UNSC. [200 Words][12.5 Marks] [2015]

Q.10) WTO is an important international institution where decisions taken affect countries in a profound manner. What is the mandate of WTO and how binding are their decisions? Critically analyse India’s stand on the latest round of talks on Food security. [200 Words] [12.5 Marks] [2014]

Q.11) The World Bank and the IMF, collectively known as the Bretton Woods Institutions, are the two inter-governmental pillars supporting the structure of the world’s economic and financial order. Superficially, the World Bank and the IMF exhibit many common characteristics, yet their role, functions and mandate are distinctly different. Elucidate. [200 Words] [10 Marks] [2013]

Trend of Polity Previous Year Questions (PYQs) For UPSC Mains

Polity as a subject carry huge weightage in Mains examination. Since last 4-5 years, around 11-14 questions are asked from this section.

Because of the trend in UPSC Mains Polity Previous Year Questions (PYQs) Candidates are suggested to give a significant emphasis on this subject. Candidates should keep themselves updated of current affairs along with conceptual clarity. It is recommended for candidates preparing for the UPSC Civil Services Exam to regularly practice Polity Mains Questions, assess the difficulty level, and formulate their preparation strategy accordingly.

YearTotal Marks weightage

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