Q. Consider the following statements:
1. While Marxism believes in public control over property, liberalism values the principle of competition.
2. Liberals believe that political and economic inequality are interlinked, while Marxists do not believe in existence of any such linkage.
3. Both the Marxism and Gandhism advocate for a stateless society.
How many statements given above are correct?

[A] Only One

[B] Only Two

[C] All Three

[D] None

Answer: B
Notes:

Exp) Option b is the correct answer.

Statement 1 is correct. Marxism argues that the root cause of entrenched inequality was private ownership of important economic resources such as oil, or land, or forests, as well as other forms of property. He pointed out that such private ownership did not only make the class of owners wealthy, it also gave them political power. Thus, there should be public ownership of important resources and property. Liberals on the other hand uphold the principle of competition as the most efficient and fair way of distributing resources and rewards in society. They believe that while states may have to intervene to try and ensure a minimum standard of living and equal opportunities for all, this cannot by itself bring equality and justice to society. Competition between people in free and fair conditions is the most just and efficient way of distributing rewards in a society.

Statement 2 is incorrect. Marxists and socialists feel that economic inequality provides support to other forms of social inequality such as differences of rank or privilege. Unlike socialists, liberals do not believe that political, economic and social inequalities are necessarily linked. They maintain that inequalities in each of these spheres should be tackled appropriately. Thus, democracy could help to provide political equality but it might be necessary to also devise different strategies to deal with social differences and economic inequalities.

Statement 3 is correct. One common agreement between Gandhism and Marxism is the final goal of stateless and classless society, whereas means to achieve these final goals differ. For Marx, the State is an instrument of oppression and an organ of the bourgeoisie that only works for maintaining class dominance. Similarly for Gandhi, in an ideal state, there is no State. In the ideal state, there is no political power because there is no State.

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