Q. Consider the following statements regarding “Cornwallis Code”:
1. Permanent settlement is the main subject of the Cornwallis Code.
2. New code is based on the principle of separation of powers.
3. A gradation of civil courts setup.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

[A] 1 only

[B] 2 and 3 only

[C] 1 and 3 only

[D] 1, 2 and 3

Answer: D

Lord Cornwallis, the British Governor General of India, introduced 48 regulations in 1793 which are generally known as the Cornwallis Code.  

  • This Code originated from a number of earlier regulations, viz, the orders and regulations introduced between 1772 and 1790, Hindu and Muslim laws, traditional institutions, the regulations of permanent settlement, and the British laws.  
  • The aim of the Cornwallis Code was to introduce an institutional code of law and an administrative system suitable for British colonial state.  
  • On 1 May 1793, Cornwallis announced his Code. Permanent settlement is the main subject of the Cornwallis Code.  
  • Earlier, the District Collector was at the same time the tax administrator, judge and magistrate.  
  • Now, a judge is appointed for every district and by separating the judiciary from the administration, judicial and magisterial power is vested with the judge.  
  • A gradation of civil courts was set up. 

Source: Grover & Grover