Q. With reference to the policy of annexation by diplomacy and administrative mechanisms by British, which of the following pairs is/are correctly matched?
Governor – General:Policy of annexation
1. Lord Hastings:policy of ring fence
2. Lord Wellesley:policy of subsidiary alliance
3. Lord Dalhousie:policy of doctrine of lapse
Select the correct answer using the code given below:

[A] 1 only

[B] 1 and 2 only

[C] 2 and 3 only

[D] 1, 2 and 3

Answer: C

Policy of Ring Fence: It is followed by Warren Hastings, under which aimed at creating buffer zones to defend the Company’s frontiers. Broadly speaking, it was the policy of defence of their neighbours’ frontiers for safeguarding their own territories. This policy of Warren Hastings was reflected in his war against the Marathas and Mysore. 

Policy of Subsidiary Alliance: It is followed by Lord Wellesley, under which the allying Indian state’s ruler was compelled to accept the permanent stationing of a British force within his territory and to pay a subsidy for its maintenance.  

  • Also, the Indian ruler had to agree to the posting of a British resident in his court. Under the system, the Indian ruler could not employ any European in his service without the prior approval of the British.  
  • Nor could he negotiate with any other Indian ruler without consulting the governor-general. In return for all this, the British would defend the ruler from his enemies and adopt a policy of noninterference in the internal matters of the allied state. 

Policy of Doctrine of Lapse: It is followed by Lord Dalhosie, under which the adopted son could be the heir to his foster father’s private property, but not the state; it was for the paramount power (the British) to decide whether to bestow the state on the adopted son or to annex it.  

Source: Spectrum Modern India.