Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science Optional Syllabus

Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science Optional-Syllabus as per official syllabus


1. Animal Nutrition :
1.1 Partitioning of food energy within the animal. Direct and indirect calorimetry.
Carbon—nitrogen balance and comparative slaughter methods. Systems for expressing
energy value of foods in ruminants, pigs and poultry. Energy requirements for maintenance,
growth, pregnancy, lactation, egg, wool, and meat production.
1.2 Latest advances in protein nutrition. Energy protein inter-relationships. Evaluation of
protein quality. Use of NPN compounds in ruminant diets. Protein requirements for
maintenance, growth, pregnancy, lactation, egg, wool and meat production.
1.3 Major and trace minerals—Their sources, physiological functions and deficiency symptoms.
Toxic minerals. Mineral interactions. Role of fatsoluble and water—soluble vitamins in the
body, their sources and deficiency symptoms.

1.4 Feed additives—methane inhibitors, probiotics, enzymes, antibiotics, hormones,
oligosaccharides, antioxidants, emulsifiers, mould inhibitors, buffers etc. Use and abuse of
growth promoters like harmones and antibiotics—latest concepts.
1.5 Conservation of fodders. Storage of feeds and feed ingredients. Recent advances in feed
technology and feed processing. Anti-nutritional and toxic factors present in livestock feeds.
Feed analysis and quality control. Digestibility trials—direct, indirect and indicator
methods. Predicting feed intake in grazing animals.
1.6 Advances in ruminant nutrition. Nutrient requirements. Balanced rations. Feeding of calves,
pregnant, work animals and breeding bulls. Strategies for feeding milch animals during
different stages of lactation cycle. Effect of feeding on milk composition. Feeding of goats for
meat and milk production. Feeding of sheep for meat and wool production.
1.7 Swine Nutrition. Nutrient requirements. Creep, starter, grower and finisher rations. Feeding
of pigs for lean meat production. Low cost rations for swine.
1.8 Poultry nutrition. Special features of poultry nutrition. Nutrient requirements for meat and
egg production. Formulation of rations for different classes of layers and broilers.

2. Animal Physiology :
2.1 Physiology of blood and its circulation, respiration; excretion. Endocrine glands in health
and disease.
2.2 Blood constituents.—Properties and functions-blood cell formation—Haemoglobin
synthesis and chemistry-plasma proteins production, classification and properties,
coagulation of blood; Haemorrhagic disorders—anti-coagulants—blood groups—Blood
volume—Plasma expanders-Buffer systems in blood. Biochemical tests and their
significance in disease diagnosis.
2.3 Circulation.—Physiology of heart, cardiac cycle, heart sounds, heart beat,
electrocardiograms. Work and efficiency of heart—effect of ions on heart
function-metabolism of cardiac muscle, nervous and chemical regulation of heart, effect of
temperature and stress on heart, blood pressuer and hypertension, osmotic regulation,
arterial pulse, vasomotor regulation of circulation, shock. Coronary and pulmonary
circulation, Blood-Brain barrier Cerebrospinal fluid-circulation in birds.
2.4 Respiration.—Mechanism of respiration, Transport and exchange of gases-neural control of
respiration-Chemo-receptors-hypoxia-respiration in birds.
2.5 Excretion.—Structure and function of kidney-formation of urine-methods of studying renal
function-renal regulation of acid-base balance : physiological constituents of urine-renal
failure-passive venous congestion-Urinary secretion in chicken-Sweat glands and their
function. Bio-chemical test for urinary dysfunction.
2.6 Endocrine glands.—Functional disorders—their symptoms and diagnosis. Synthesis of
hormones, mechanism and control of secretion—hormonal receptors-classification and
2.7 Growth and Animal Production.—Prenatal and postnatal growth, maturation, growth
curves, measures of growth, factors affecting growth, conformation, body composition,
meat quality.
2.8 Physiology of Milk Production, Reproduction and Digestion.—Current status of hormonal
control of mammary development, milk secretion and milk ejection. Male and Female
reproductive organs, their components and functions. Digestive organs and their
2.9 Environmental Physiology.—Physiological relations and their regulation; mechanisms of
adaptation, environmental factors and regulatory mechanisms involved in animal
behaviour, climatology—various parameters and their importance. Animal ecology.
Physiology of behaviour. Effect of stress on health and production.

3. Animal Reproduction :
Semen quality.—Preservation and Artificial Insemination—Components of semen,
composition of spermatozoa, chemical and physical properties of ejaculated semen, factors
affecting semen in vivo and in vitro. Factors affecting semen production and quality,
preservation, composition of diluents, sperm concentration, transport of diluted semen.
Deep freezing techniques in cows, sheep, goats, swine and poultry. Detection of oestrus and
time of insemination for better conception. Anoestrus and repeat breeding.

4. Livestock Production and Management :
4.1 Commercial Dairy Farming.—Comparison of dairy farming in India with advanced
countries. Dairying under mixed farming and as specialized farming, economic dairy
farming. Starting of a dairy farm, Capital and land requirement, organization of the dairy
farm. Opportunities in dairy farming, factors determining the efficiency of dairy animal.
Heard recording, budgeting cost of milk production, pricing policy; Personnel Management.
Developing Practical and Economic rations for dairy cattle; supply of greens throughout the
year, feed and fodder requirements of Dairy Farm. Feeding regimes for young stock and
bulls, heifers and breeding animals; new trends in feeding young and adult stock; Feeding
4.2 Commercial meat, egg and wool production.—Development of practical and economic
rations for sheep, goats, pigs, rabbits and poultry. Supply of greens, fodder, feeding regimes
for young and mature stock. New trends in enhancing production and management. Capital
and land requirements and socio-economic concept.
4.3 Feeding and management of animals under drought, flood and other natural calamities.

5. Genetics and Animal Breeding :
5.1 History of animal genetics. Mitosis and Meiosis : Mendelian inheritance; deviations to
Mendelian genetics; Expression of genes; Linkage and crossing over; Sex determination, sex
influenced and sex limited characters; Blood groups and polymorphism; Chromosome
aberrations; Cytoplasmic inheritance, Gene and its structure; DNA as a genetic material;
Genetic code and protein synthesis; Recombinant DNA technology. Mutations, types of
mutations, methods for detecting mutations and mutation rate, Transgenesis.
5.2 Population Genetics applied to Animal Breeding—Quantitative Vs. Qualitative traits; Hardy
Weinberg Law; Population Vs. Individual; Gene and genotypic frequency; Forces changing
gene frequency; Random drift and small populations; Theory of path coefficient; Inbreeding,
methods of estimating inbreeding coefficient, systems of inbreeding; Effective population
size; Breeding value, estimation of breeding value, dominance and epistatic deviation;
Partitioning of variation; Genotype X environment correlation and genotype X environment
interaction; role of multiple measurements; Resemblance between relatives.
5.3 Breeding Systems.—Breeds of livestsock and Poultry. Heritability, repeatability and
genetic and phenotypic correlations, their methods of estimation and precision of estimates;
Aids to selection and their relative merits; Individual, pedigree, family and within family
selection; Pregnency testing; Methods of selection; Construction of selection indices and
their uses; Comparative evaluation of genetic gains through various selection methods;
Indirect selection and correlated response; Inbreeding, out breeding, upgrading,
cross-breeding and synthesis of breeds; Crossing of inbred lines for commercial production;
Selection for general and specific combining ability; Breeding for threshold characters. Sire

6. Extension :
Basic philosophy, objectives, concept and principles of extension. Different Methods
adopted to educate farmers under rural conditions. Generation of technology, its transfer
and feedback. Problems and constraints in transfer of technology. Animal husbandry
programmes for rural development.


1. Anatomy, Pharmacology and Hygiene :
1.1 Histology and Histological Techniques : Paraffin embedding technique of tissue
processing and H.E. staining—Freezing microtomy—Microscopy Bright field microscope
and electron microscope. Cytology-structure of cell organells and inclusions; cell
division-cell types—Tissues and their classification-embryonic and adult
tissues—Comparative histology of organs—Vascular, Nervous, digestive, respiratory,
musculo-skeletal and urogenital systems—Endocrine glands—Integuments—sense organs.
1.2 Embryology.—Embryology of vertebrates with special reference to aves and domestic
mammals gametogenesis-fertilization-germ layers-foetal membranes and
placentation-types of placenta in domestic mammals-Teratology-twins and
twinning-organogenesis-germ layer derivatives-endodermal, mesodermal and ectodermal
1.3 Bovine Anatomy.—Regional Anatomy : Paranasal sinuses of OX— surface anatomy of
salivary glands. Regional anatomy of infraorbital, maxillary, mandi-buloalveolar, mental and
cornnal nerve block. Regional anatomy of paravertebral nerves, pudental nerve, median,
ulnar and radial nervestibial, fibular and digital nerves—Cranial nerves-structures involved
in epidural anaesthesia-superficial lymph nodes-surface anatomy of visceral organs of
thoracic, abdominal and pelvic cavities-comparative-features of locomotor apparatus and
their application in the biomechanics of mammalian body.
1.4 Anatomy of Fowl.—Musculo-skeletal system-functional anatomy in relation to respiration
and flying, digestion and egg production.
1.5 Pharmacology and therapeutics drugs.—Cellular level of pharmacodynamics andpharmacokinetics. Drugs acting on fluids and electrolyte balance. Drugs acting on
Autonomic nervous system. Modern concepts of anaesthesia and dissociative anaesthetics.
Autocoids. Antimicrobials and principles of chemotherapy in microbial infections. Use of
hormones in therapeutics—chemotherapy of parasitic infections. Drug and economic
concerns in the Edible tissues of animals—chemotherapy of Neoplastic diseases. Toxicity
due to “insecticides, plants, metals, non-metals, zootoxins and mycotoxins”.
1.6 Veterinary Hygiene with reference to water, air and habitation.—Assessment of
pollution of water, air and soil—Importance of climate in animal health—effect of
environment on animal function and performance relationship between industrialisation
and animal agriculture—animal housing requirements for specific categories of domestic
animals viz. pregnant cows and sows, milking cows, broiler birds—stress, strain and
productivity in relation to animal habitation.

2. Animal Diseases :
2.1 Etiology, epidemiology pathogenesis, symptoms, post-moretem lesions, diagnosis, and
control of infectious diseases of cattle, sheep and goat, horses, pigs and poultry.
2.2 Etiology, epidemiology, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment of production diseases of cattle,
horse, pig and poultry.
2.3 Deficiency diseases of domestic animals and birds.
2.4 Diagnosis and treatment of non-specific conditions like impaction, Bloat, Diarrhoea,
Indigestion, dehydration, stroke, poisioning.
2.5 Diagnosis and treatment of neurological disorders.
2.6 Principles and methods of immunisation of animals against specific diseases—hard
immunity—disease free zones—‘zero’ disease concept—chemoprophylaxis.
2.7 Anaesthesia.—local, regional and general-prenesthetic medication. Symptoms and surgical
interference in fractures and dislocation. Hernia, choking abomassal
displacement—Caesarian operations. Rumenotomy—Castrations.
2.8 Disease investigation techniques.—Materials for laboratory
investigation—Establishment. Animal Health Centres—Disease free zone.

3. Veterinary Public Health :
3.1 Zoonoses.—Classification, definition, role of animals and birds in prevalence and
transmission of zoonotic diseases—occupational zoonotic diseases.
3.2 Epidemiology.—Principle, definition of epidemiological terms, application of
epidemiological measures in the study of diseases and disease control. Epidemiological
features of air, water and food borne infections. OIE regulation, WTO, sanitary and
phytosanitary measures.
3.3 Veterinary Jurisprudence.—Rules and Regulations for improvement of animal quality and
prevention of animal diseases—State and Central Rules for prevention of animal and
animal product borne diseases—S.P. C.A.—Veterolegal cases—Certificates—Materials and
Methods of collection of samples for veterolegal investigation.

4. Milk and Milk Products Technology :
4.1 Market Milk.—Quality, testing and grading of raw milk. Processing, packaging, storing,
distribution, marketing defects and their control. Preparation of the following milks :
Pasteurized, standardized, toned, double toned, sterilized, homogenized, reconstituted,
recombined and flavoured milks. Preparation of cultured milks, cultures and their
management, yoghurt, Dahi, Lassi and Srikhand. Preparation of flavoured and sterilized
milks. Legal standards. Sanitation requirement for clean and safe milk and for the milk
plant equipment.
4.2 Milk Products Technology.—Selection of raw materials, processing, storing, distributing
and marketing milk products such as Cream, Butter, Ghee, Khoa, Channa, Cheese,
condensed, evaporated, dried milk and baby food, lce cream and Kulfi; by-products, whey
products, butter milk, lactose and casein. Testing, grading, judging milk products—BIS and
Agmark specifications, legal standards, quality control nutritive properties. Packaging
processing and operational control. Costing of dairy products.

5. Meat Hygiene and Technology :
5.1 Meat Hygiene
5.1.1 Ante mortem care and management of food animals, stunning, slaughter and dressing
operations; abattoir requirements and designs; Meat inspection procedures and judgement
of carcass meat cuts—grading of carcass meat cuts—duties and functions of Veterinarians
in wholesome meat production.
5.1.2 Hygienic methods of handling production of meat.—Spoilage of meat and control
measures—Post- slaughter physicochemical changes in meat and factors that influence
them—Quality improvement methods—Adulteration of meat and detection—Regulatory
provisions in Meat trade and Industry.
5.2 Meat Technology
5.2.1 Physical and chemical characteristics of meat.—Meat emulsions—Methods of
preservation of meat—Curing, canning, irradiation, packaging of meat and meat products,
processing and formulations.
5.3 By-products.—Slaughter house by-products and their utilisation—Edible and inedible by
products—Social and economic implications of proper utilisation of slaughter house
by-products—Organ products for food and pharmaceuticals.
5.4 Poultry Products Technology.—Chemical composition and nutritive value of poultry meat,
pre- slaughter care and management. Slaughtering techniques, inspection, preservation of
poultry meat and products. Legal and BIS standards.
Structure composition and nutritive value of eggs Microbial spoilage. Preservation and
maintenance. Marketing of poultry meat, eggs and products.
5.5 Rabbit/Fur Animal farming.—Rabbit meat production. Disposal and utilization of fur and
wool and recycling of waste by products. Grading of wool.

Suggestive books for Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science Optional

  • A guide on forest Entomology – Regupathy
  • A Textbook Of Animal Husbandry- G C Banerjee
  • Advanced Animal Nutrition- D. V Reddy
  • Agricultural Economics- S Subba Reddy
  • Animal husbandry & veterinary science- T.N. Palanivelu
  • Animal Husbandry- Gyan Deep Singh, Anmol Publishers
  • Animal Physiology- K. A. Goyal, Rastogi Publishing
  • Animal Physiology- Kavita Juneja, Anmol Publishers
  • Basics Of Animal Physiology- Monalisa Kar, Anmol Publishers
  • Biotech’s Dictionary Of Animal Husbandry – Daya Publishing
  • Biotechnology Expanding Horizons – B D Singh, Kalyani Publishers
  • Essentials Of Plant Breeding -Phundan Singh, Kalyani Publishers
  • Fundamentals of Agriculture Volume-1 -Arun Katyayan, Kushal Publications
  • Fundamentals Of Agriculture Volume-2 -Arun Katyayan, Kushal Publications
  • General Agriculture- Muniraj S Rathore, Jain Brothers
  • Handbook Of Agriculture, Publisher: ICAR
  • Handbook Of Animal Husbandry -Manoj Kumar Rai, Oxford Book Company
  • Horticulture At A Glance Volume II -A S Salaria, Jain Brothers
  • Indian forestry – A breakthrough approach to forest service- K. S Manikandan and S. Prabhu
  • Introduction To Agriculture – A K Vyas, Jain Brothers
  • Milk And Milk Products Technology -Subhash Biswas, Jaypee Brothers
  • Principles Of Agronomy- Yellamanda Reddy, Kalyani Publishers
  • Principles Of Animal Nutrition & Feed Technology- D V Reddy, Oxford
  • Principles Of Genetics & Animal Breeding- F H KHAN, Jaypee Brothers
  • Textbook Of Animal Diseases -Ashok Kumar, Sonali Publication
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