900-year-old Chalukyan inscription

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Source-This post on 900-year-old Chalukyan inscription900-year-old Chalukyan inscription is based on the article “900-year-old Chalukyan inscription discovered in state of utter neglect at Gangapuram” published in “The Hindu” on 24th March 2024.

Why in the News?

A 900-year-old Kannada inscription from the Kalyana Chalukya dynasty has been found at Gangapuram, a temple town, in Telangana.

About the Chalukyas of Kalyani:

Chalukyas Dynasty
Source: Geeksforgeeks

About Chalukya Dynasty

1. The Chalukya dynasty ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and 12th centuries. During this period, they ruled as three related yet individual dynasties:

i) Badami Chalukyas: The earliest Chalukyas, with their capital at Badami (Vatapi) in Karnataka. They rose to prominence during the reign of Pulakeshin II and began to assert their independence after the decline of the Kadamba kingdom of Banavasi.

ii) Eastern Chalukyas: They emerged in the eastern Deccan after the death of Pulakeshin II. Their capital was Vengi, and they ruled until about the 11th century.

iii) Western Chalukyas: They were the descendants of the Badami Chalukyas. They emerged in the late 10th century and ruled from Kalyani (modern-day Basavakalyan).

About Kalyani Chalunkyas

1. Dynasty and Capital:
a) The Chalukyas of Kalyani belong primarily to a Kannadiga dynasty, also known as western chalukyas. They were known after their capital city, Kalyani, which is present in the modern-day Bidar district of Karnataka.

2. Establishment and Expansion:
a) The empire was established by Tailapa II.

b) During their 300-year rule in the western Deccan and southern part of the Indian peninsula, the Chalukyas of Kalyani expanded and reached the zenith of power.

3. The most successful period of the later Chalukya rulers in Karnataka’s history is often referred to as the ‘Chalukya Vikrama era’.

4. Vikramaditya VI (1076-1126 CE) played a crucial role during this time. He controlled feudatories in the northern region, including Kadamba Jayakesi II of Goa, Silhara Bhoja, and the Yadava King.

6. Decline:
a) After Vikramaditya VI’s death, consistent confrontations with the Chola dynasty led to the decline of the Western Chalukya empire.

7. Art and architecture:

a) The Chalukyas contributed significantly to the development of Kannada and Telugu literature.

b) Their architecture, known as the ‘Gadag style, bridged the gap between the Badami Chalukya architecture of the 8th century and the Hoysala architecture of the 13th century.

c) The Western Chalukyas minted punch-marked gold coins called pagodas with Kannada legends.

d) Temples built during their rule are abundant in detailed carvings and ornate sculptures, featuring themes like kirtimukha makaras, and mithuna (erotic) figures.


UPSC Syllabus: History

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