UPSC Mains Syllabus GS 2

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Welcome to ForumIAS, as a UPSC aspirant you might know the syllabus of UPSC but you might not know what topic has to be studied to clear the UPSC Exam? For Example, every aspirant knows the UPSC syllabus from History includes topics such as Ancient History, Medieval History, Modern History, and Art and Architecture. But not every aspirant knows what are the sub-topics to cover within the above-mentioned topics.

This post clearly segregated all the sub-topics listed in the UPSC Syllabus. So that an aspirant who read the article can cover the topic and sub-topics completely, and those aspirants who already completed the topics can measure whether they covered all the sub-topics completely or any other portion has been left out during their preparation.

Why Sub-topics are important?

Breaking up of UPSC syllabus is one of the crucial steps to make one’s preparation wholesome. Without simplification of topics the UPSC preparation is incomplete. A quote by Martin H. Fischer – (a notable physician) sums it up clearly.

“Knowledge is a process of piling up facts; wisdom lies in their simplification”

Based on the above saying one can derive the UPSC preparation is a process of piling up facts but to get wisdom (Clear the UPSC exam) breaking up of the UPSC syllabus is the key to success.

Breaking of the UPSC syllabus will provide many advantages like,

  • An aspirant can have a clear roadmap as to how many topics s/he has covered, and to what extent.
  • The sub-topic list will ensure that what all to be covered under a topic to complete the topic.
  • The sub-topics helps in segregation of current affair article and it will come in handy during the last-minute revisions.
  • The sub-topic classification can help candidates to avoid reading unnecessary topics or jumbling up of topics.

Topics and sub-topic list for UPSC Syllabus:

The General studies part of the UPSC syllabus cover various domain such as History, Polity, Economy, Geography, Environment, Science and Technology, International Relations and Current events.

In the General Studies Paper II, the UPSC syllabus covers the topics such as GOVERNANCE, CONSTITUTION, POLITY, SOCIAL JUSTICE AND INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS.

To know the UPSC Syllabus : Click here

Important Topics and Sub-topics in Indian Polity and Constitution:

Important topicsSub-topics under each topic
Indian Polity and Constitution·         Political systems – concepts, types, forms (Democratic and Non-democratic, Parliamentary or Presidential, type of representative – direct and indirect, Republic, Monarch and oligarch etc)

·         Political system established by Indian Constitution and the difference between Indian system with that of other countries.

·         Indian Constitution—historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure (including Preamble, Citizenship, Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles, Fundamental duties and amendments of Constitution and its procedure, Elections in India)

·         Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein (Including Centre-State relations, Inter-state relations etc)

·         Separation of powers between various organs dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions.

·         Parliament and State legislatures—structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.

·         Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary—Ministries and Departments of the Government.

·         Pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.

·         Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act.

·         Constitutional Bodies (Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities)

·         Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies.

·         Elections, Electoral politics and political parties: problems and processes

Important Topics and Sub-topics in Governance in India

Important topicsSub-topics under each topic
Governance in India·         Concept and evolution of Governance, e- governance, difference between Government and Governance, applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential

·         Development processes and the development industry —the role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders.

·         Transparency and accountability, Citizen’s Charter & Anticorruption etc

·         Role of civil services in a democracy.

·         Social Audit (Public Policy: Making, Implementation, Evaluation and monitoring)

·         Other sub-topics such as Public Sector Management, Rights Issues etc

 Important Topics and Sub-topics in Social Justice:

Important topicsSub-topics under each topic
Social Justice·         Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes

·         Social sector initiatives such as Employment Generation Programmes, Basic Amenities: Housing / Drinking Waters / Sanitation, Health and Family Welfare, Women and Child Development, Social Welfare etc

·         Reforms: Police Reform, Administrative Reform, Judicial Reform, Political Reform etc.

·         mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of vulnerable sections

·         Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources

·         Poverty and hunger – concept, status, government and non-government initiatives, challenges, Vicious cycle of Poverty and Hunger, breaking vicious cycle, reforms suggested, Poverty alleviation Programs in India including Employment generation programmes etc

 Important Topics and sub-topics in International Relations:

Important topicsSub-topics under each topic
International Relations·         Indian foreign policy since Independence under various Prime Ministers like Non-Alignment Movement, Gujral Doctrine, etc.

·         India and its neighbourhood- relations covering sub-topics such as historic relations, Indian initiatives in neighbourhood countries and vice versa, challenges and solutions etc

·         Bilateral relationships involving India and/or affecting India’s interests including India and East and West Asian Nations, African Nations, Europe and the Americas

·         Regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests like RCEP, TPP, CPEC, SCO etc.

·         Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests like US visa policy, Abraham accords, Chinese presence in Indian ocean etc

·         Important International institutions, agencies and fora- their structure, mandate like WTO, WHO, UN, etc.

·         Indian diaspora – status, strength and weaknesses, Impact of diaspora in India’s International relations, etc

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